Switzerland draws travelers from around the world for its legendary mountains. From the Matterhorn to the Jungfrau to Appenzell, we savor both the country’s jaw-dropping alpine beauty and the rich and resilient culture of its people. As we lace together that dramatic mountain wonder with scenic train rides, breathtaking lifts, and unforgettable hikes, we also enjoy alpine life.
[ Alphorn blowing ]
-Hey, I'm Rick Steves, back with more of the best of Europe.
I'm tooting the horn
for some of my favorite mountain destinations.
It's the classic corners of the Swiss Alps.
Thanks for joining us.
[ Alphorn blowing ]
Switzerland draws travelers from around the world
for its legendary mountains.
In this episode, we'll see no grand museums,
no great cities,
just jaw-dropping Alpine beauty
and the rich and resilient culture
of the people who live here.
It's a land of dramatic mountains
laced together by scenic train rides
and spectacular hikes.
Famous peaks are made accessible by thrilling lifts,
including the highest in all of Europe.
We'll enjoy alpine life, from exploring glaciers
to making cheese the old-fashioned way.
Switzerland is small -- just half the size of Kentucky.
While it has great cities,
most of the country is rural and mountainous.
We start in Zermatt, at the Matterhorn,
take the Glacier Express train ride,
drop in on Appenzell,
and finish in the Berner Oberland,
riding lifts to the Jungfrau and the Schilthorn.
Zermatt, at the foot of the Matterhorn,
was essentially built for enjoying the Alps.
It's hugely popular with skiers in the winter
and hikers in the summer.
With its many lifts, it's a springboard for countless trails
and unforgettable viewpoints.
The weather's great, and we're hopping a train
to one of the most dramatic views in all the Alps.
The Gornergrat cogwheel train has been wowing visitors
The trip comes with sweeping views,
first of the town of Zermatt...
then of the iconic peak that draws so many to this region --
The train climbs steeply into the high country.
It takes us to over 10,000 feet,
where we reach the end of the line.
Across the tracks, an old hotel
solidly caps the Gornergrat ridge.
Grand views stretch in every direction.
Stunning Matterhorn views demand the attention of hikers,
but there's more.
Monte Rosa is actually higher than the Matterhorn.
In fact, at 15,200 feet,
it's the highest point in Switzerland.
And a 1,000-foot sheer drop below the platform
stretches the mighty Gorner Glacier.
It seems many of my favorite hikes
start partway down my favorite lifts or train rides.
Hopping off this train about midway,
I'm in for a sensational yet easy hike.
Getting to these exciting spots with so little work
and so far from the crowds, I feel like I'm cheating...
and I love it.
There's just something about the Matterhorn,
the most recognizable mountain on the planet,
that attracts people.
It's a dangerous mountain to climb.
Each year, while several thousand make it to the summit,
about a dozen die trying.
And with global warming,
the permafrost that keeps it solid is thawing,
making falling rocks a new hazard.
as if to enjoy views of the Matterhorn from every angle,
are dozens of lifts and hundreds of miles of trails.
As is the case throughout the Alps,
handy signposts make it clear where you are,
what's the altitude,
and how long it takes to hike to various points.
Zermatt, straddling its tiny river,
is a small town of 6,000 with a big tourist industry.
It has more hotel beds than residents --
and they're often completely full.
Nearly everyone earns a living one way or another
from tourists, who flock here for a peek at the peak.
About two million visitors a year arrive by train.
Cars are not allowed.
Electric carts weave quietly through the pedestrians.
The town is a collection
of over 100 modern, chalet-style hotels,
with a well-organized and groomed infrastructure
for summer and winter sports.
And this crowd-pleasing herd of traditional blackneck goats,
which parades through the town every day,
has had it with selfies and is headin' for the barn.
[ Bells ringing, goat bleats ]
If you explore a bit,
you can discover pockets of traditional charm.
200 years ago, Zermatt would have looked more like this --
little more than a gathering of humble log cabins.
Zermatt works hard to keep its visitors entertained,
and tradition-loving locals seem delighted to do just that.
[ Group singing in native language ]
-[ Yodeling ]
[ Cheers and applause ]
-From the town of Zermatt, a mighty cable car
takes us to the summit
of a peak called the "Little Matterhorn".
Prices are steep,
as the community has invested hundreds of millions of dollars
in their mountain lifts in recent years.
These lifts are absolutely state-of-the-art
and just experiencing them is worth the splurge.
At 12,700 feet,
this is the highest cable-car station in Europe.
While the view of the Matterhorn from this angle
is not the iconic postcard profile,
the views from this observation deck are stunning.
On a clear day, the Alps fill the horizon
with all their glory.
The Zermatt train station is busy each morning
as travelers invest a day of their vacation
to take one of the most scenic train rides in the world,
riding the rails across southern Switzerland
on the Glacier Express.
designed to maximize your sightseeing thrills,
features a masterpiece of railway engineering.
The Glacier Express trainline crosses 290 bridges and viaducts
and goes through 90 tunnels in 8 hours
as it connects two of the leading alpine resorts --
Zermatt and Saint Moritz.
Over a quarter million Alp-lovers
ride this train each year.
People kick back and just relax,
enjoying big windows for bigger views.
The scenery unfolds as the train carves its way
through the Swiss landscape.
In the glaciers high above
are born some of Europe's great rivers,
which flow from here to both the Atlantic and the Mediterranean.
Now we're trading away some of the staggering alpine peaks
for an insight into the Swiss and their heritage.
This is Appenzell --
cowbell country and storybook-friendly.
According to legend, the devil was flying over these hills
with a sack filled with houses.
A sharp peak tore a hole in the sack,
and lots of chalets sprinkled over the countryside.
To this day, the farms and hamlets remain widely scattered,
and the canton of Appenzell
remains one of Switzerland's most traditional.
The Swiss are famously independent, and historically,
the big threat to their independence
was the Habsburg Empire from Austria.
In the Middle Ages, this region was fragmented
into small cantons, or states.
In the 13th century,
three of these cantons joined together to fight the Habsburgs.
By 1291, they established their independence,
and Switzerland was born.
This union eventually grew to include 26 cantons
and the country we know today.
Switzerland is unique among its European neighbors.
It's not in the EU, and, rather than the euro,
it uses its own currency.
This stubborn pride
and the resulting survival of local traditions
is one thing that makes Switzerland
such a rewarding place to visit.
[ Cowbells clacking ]
You feel the strength of that tradition
here in the town of Appenzell.
Amazingly, it wasn't until 1990
that Appenzell women were given full voting rights.
This has been the capital of the canton for 400 years,
and many of the buildings date back to that time.
[ Bicycle bell rings ]
Switzerland's independence distinguished it
from European high culture.
Back then, it took royalty or the Roman Catholic church
to pay for big-time cultural achievements.
So, instead of lots of grand palaces and cathedrals,
today, travelers see Swiss culture
on a small and personal scale.
Folk museums here give an intimate peek
into Appenzell's humble rural culture,
with rooms replicating everyday life,
from where they raised their families
to where they worked.
In this 400-year-old building, the ceilings are low,
and the floors are creaky with centuries-old beams.
Simple folk art shows the importance of cows
and the ritual of taking the herd
up to the high meadows for the summer
and back down for the winter.
This room shows life as it was for the herder in the high Alps,
who spent summers alone, milking cows and making cheese.
These decorative cowbells awaited the festive day
when the herd would descend from the high meadow.
It was a world of wood.
The woodshop is where milk pails
would be fashioned out of maple and fir,
soaked in water to be made pliable,
assembled watertight with no nails,
and then artfully carved.
The woodworker's bedroom
reflects the pride he had in his profession.
He earned enough to afford some fine painted furniture.
This wardrobe dates from 1817.
Whether traveling by train or by car,
mountainous Switzerland has fine infrastructure,
and you can get nearly anywhere in the country
in just a few hours.
The Berner Oberland is a particularly scenic region.
Its Lauterbrunnen Valley,
which stretches south from the city of Interlaken,
is a wonderful springboard
for some of my favorite Swiss Alp experiences.
with its vertical sides and flat bottom, is U-shaped,
a textbook example of a glacier-shaped valley.
While the main town, also called Lauterbrunnen,
sits on the valley floor,
neighboring towns hang on cliffs high above.
"Lauterbrunnen" means "loud waters" -- an apt name.
Waterfalls plummet from cliffs all along the valley.
Staubach Falls -- one of the highest in Switzerland --
drops nearly 1,000 feet.
The valley -- with its riverside trails,
and chorus of surrounding peaks cheering you on --
is a magnet for nature lovers.
Towering high above
are the icy Jungfrau, Monch, and Eiger peaks,
named for the legend of the young maiden, Jungfrau,
being protected by the monk, or Monch,
from the mean ogre, or Eiger.
And perched on a saddle between two of those mountains
is the Jungfraujoch Station,
and that's where we're going by train.
From the valley floor, a cogwheel train
takes tourists and mountaineers alike
on this ear-popping journey.
As we gradually climb, the views continually unfold.
[ Cow moos ]
Eventually, we arrive at Kleine Scheidegg,
a rail junction at the base of the peaks.
For well over a century, this has been the jumping-off point
for rock climbers attempting to scale
the foreboding north face of the Eiger.
Kleine Scheidegg has souvenir shops,
hearty food for hikers,
and rustic 19th-century hotels --
a reminder that tourism is nothing new here.
With the craze for social media these days
and with millions of people
from countries with emerging economies
now able to afford that dream trip to Europe,
famous destinations like this can be really crowded.
Do what you can to minimize the crowds.
Arrive early, arrive late -- it really helps.
Continuing our journey to Europe's highest train station,
the ingenuity of Swiss engineers is apparent
as we climb the railway they built back in 1912.
Amazingly, our train tunnels through the Eiger
on our climb all the way to the Jungfraujoch.
Think about it -- the Swiss drilled this tunnel
through solid rock.
It's four miles long.
This train is smooth,
and they did it 100 years ago.
To show off their engineering skills and to celebrate nature.
Halfway up, the train stops at panorama windows.
While expert rock climbers can exit here
into an unforgiving world of ice and air,
sightseers get their thrills
by simply marveling at the icy views.
[ Train rumbling ]
Continuing up the tunnel,
from here the train's cogwheels earn their keep.
You emerge at 11,000 feet -- the Jungfraujoch.
Spectacular views of majestic peaks
stretch as far as you can see.
Cradled among these giants,
you understand the timeless allure of the Swiss Alps.
The Jungfraujoch is like a small resort
perched on a mountain ridge.
From the highest viewing point, you can see the Aletsch Glacier,
which stretches about 10 miles to the south.
While shrinking with the warming global climate,
it's still the longest glacier in the Alps.
The air is thin --
people are in giddy moods.
The station is a maze of shops, restaurants, and amusements.
A tunnel is actually carved through the glacier
to a cavern of ice sculptures -- an especially big hit
for visitors from lands where ice is a rarity.
Outside on the glacier, people enjoy the scene.
From here, many venture even higher
as a snowy trail leads to more mountain thrills.
But for me, I'll call this good
and savor the sense of accomplishment I get
when climbing to 11,370 feet before lunch.
The Berner Oberland has something for everybody.
Part of the fun and much of the expense
of enjoying the Alps is riding the various lifts.
Funiculars let hikers gain altitude quick and easy.
This lift actually lets visitors ride on the rooftop --
a great way to more fully appreciate
the staggering beauty of the region.
And once again, it's fun to leave the crowds
by getting off at an intermediary station
and taking a hike.
There's a special camaraderie
with people who actually get out and hike.
And within moments, you're sharing the experience
with fellow hikers and enjoying the Alps in a way so many miss.
Towns like Murren were developed
to accommodate nature-loving tourists.
They cater to your every need.
You can stroll through traffic-free centers,
and towns are springboards for a popular option --
the electric bike.
While service roads in the high country
may be closed to regular traffic,
e-bikes are more than welcome,
and they make you look fitter than you actually are.
Remote towns may be beyond the reach of your car,
but all are accessible by various lifts.
One of my favorites is the idyllic village of Gimmelwald.
The village -- established in the Middle Ages
precariously on the edge of a cliff --
was one of the poorest places in Switzerland.
Gimmelwald works together like a big family --
in fact, most of the hundred or so residents here
share one of two last names -- von Allmen or Feuz.
My friend Olle, long the village schoolteacher,
enjoys showing me around.
This is the oldest house, from 1658.
And the woodwork is generally unpainted --
just bleached in the sun.
Originally hay up top and cows below.
For generations, families have lovingly tended
their vegetable gardens.
They still are relied on to put food on the table --
and this one comes with an artistic side.
Retaining their traditional ways,
farmers here make ends meet
only with help from Swiss government subsidies.
They supplement that by working the ski lifts in the winter.
Modern tourism has contributed to the local economy as well.
Pension Gimmelwald's terrace restaurant
is filled with happy hikers at dinnertime --
enthused by the memories they earned with today's hike.
I've been coming to Gimmelwald all my life,
and it never gets old.
With the world changing as fast as it is,
I find it refreshing to know that there are places like this
that still embrace their traditions.
Dairy is the traditional industry here.
Collecting grass to get their cows through the winter
on these steep slopes is labor-intensive.
Each family fills silos
with enough to feed a dozen or so cows.
But we're here in the summer, and the cows are in the high Alp
enjoying a diet of fresh grass and flowers.
From their milk, some of the most prized cheese in the world
is still made in the traditional way.
We're joining a small tour group
organized by the village tourist office.
Of the countless visitors in this valley,
these travelers took the initiative
to enjoy this intimate peek at local culture in action.
Once the milk is heated to just the right temperature,
the cheesemaker, using his teeth as well as his hands,
masterfully scoops about ten kilos of curds
from the bottom of the cauldron.
He then plops the sopping cheesecloth
into a circular mold.
It's quickly pressed
to remove as much of the liquid, or whey, as possible.
[ Cheesemaker speaking indistinctly ]
As the moisture is removed and the aging process begins,
a wheel of wet curds becomes a wheel of Alp cheese,
frequently brushed with brine and stored flat on shelves
in a shed like this one for up to two years.
[ Alphorn blowing ]
In the high country, I also enjoy a chance
to hear traditional music --
and up here, along with yodeling,
that means the long, legato tones of the alphorn.
The alphorn has a range of nearly 3 octaves.
But with no valves, it's limited to the same notes as a bugle.
Used throughout the Alps,
this horn has played a role in this culture for 500 years --
to call cows from pasture to the barn for milking,
as a way for herdsmen in the high meadows
to communicate with people in the valley below,
and even as a call to prayer through remote valleys.
[ Alphorn continues blowing ]
Oh! -- and we've got time for one more Swiss summit.
High above this meadow,
a peak called the Shilthorn emerges from the clouds.
And in good Swiss fashion,
a modern cable car -- the Schilthornbahn --
zips visitors effortlessly to its summit.
In the Alps, while the valleys may be blanketed in clouds,
the peaks can be brilliantly sunny.
Get an early start:
the peaks are often clear in the morning and then cloud up.
The 10,000-foot summit of the Schilthorn
awaits skiers, hikers, and sightseers --
both winter and summer.
This station, which capitalizes
on its role in a James Bond film,
awaits with a revolving restaurant --
perfect for spies nursing their 007 martinis.
Meanwhile on the panorama terrace,
families pick out the peaks
while others thrill at 360 degrees of alpine splendor.
For me, the majesty of the mountains
is easiest to appreciate on my own private perch.
As always, try to make a point to get away from the crowds --
to be alone to savor an unforgettable moment.
Switzerland may be a small country,
but its mountains are mighty --
and we hope you've enjoyed this look at a few of its very best.
Thanks for joining us.
I'm Rick Steves high in the Alps.
Until next time, keep on travelin'.
-[ Yodeling ]
To know that there are places like this
that embrace their traditions -- [ Cellphone chimes ]
...it makes me want to answer the phone.