PBS NewsHour

FULL EPISODE

November 21, 2020 - PBS NewsHour Weekend full episode

On this edition for Saturday, November 21, hospitalizations continue to climb as COVID-19 cases break more records, an expert explains the relationship between climate change and extreme weather, such as hurricanes, and Art Garfunkel offers fresh insight on his time in the iconic duo Simon & Garfunkel, and his relationship with Paul Simon. Hari Sreenivasan anchors from New York.

AIRED: November 21, 2020 | 0:26:36
ABOUT THE PROGRAM
TRANSCRIPT

>> Sreenivasan: ON THIS EDITION

FOR SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 21:

HOSPITALIZATIONS CONTINUE TO

CLIMB AS COVID CASES BREAK MORE

RECORDS; MEASURING THE

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLIMATE

CHANGE AND EXTREME WEATHER.

>> ♪ HELLO DARKNESS,

MY OLD FRIEND... ♪

>> Sreenivasan: AND ART

GARFUNKEL WITH "NOTES FROM AN

UNDERGROUND MAN."

NEXT ON PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND.

>>PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND IS MADE

POSSIBLE BY:

SUE AND EDGAR WACHENHEIM III.

THE ANDERSON FAMILY FUND.

BERNARD AND DENISE SCHWARTZ.

THE CHERYL AND PHILIP MILSTEIN

FAMILY.

BARBARA HOPE ZUCKERBERG.

THE LEONARD AND NORMA KLORFINE

FOUNDATION.

CHARLES ROSENBLUM.

WE TRY TO LIVE IN THE MOMENT,

TO NOT MISS WHAT'S RIGHT IN

FRONT OF US.

AT MUTUAL OF AMERICA, WE

BELIEVE TAKING CARE OF TOMORROW

CAN HELP YOU MAKE THE MOST OF

TODAY.

MUTUAL OF AMERICA FINANCIAL

GROUP, RETIREMENT SERVICES AND

INVESTMENTS.

>> FOR 25 YEARS, CONSUMER

CELLULAR'S GOAL HAS BEEN TO

PROVIDE WIRELESS SERVICE THAT

HELPS PEOPLE COMMUNICATE AND

CONNECT.

WE OFFER A VARIETY OF

NO-CONTRACT PLANS, AND OUR

U.S.-BASED CUSTOMER SERVICE TEAM

CAN HELP FIND ONE THAT FITS YOU.

TO LEARN MORE, VISIT

www.consumercellular.tv.

ADDITIONAL SUPPORT HAS BEEN

PROVIDED BY:

AND BY THE CORPORATION FOR

PUBLIC BROADCASTING, A PRIVATE

CORPORATION FUNDED BY THE

AMERICAN PEOPLE.

AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO YOUR

PBS STATION FROM VIEWERS LIKE

YOU.

THANK YOU.

>> Sreenivasan: GOOD EVENING,

AND THANK YOU FOR JOINING US.

ON THIS WEEKEND BEFORE

THANKSGIVING, STATES AND LOCAL

GOVERNMENTS ACROSS THE COUNTRY

ARE RE-IMPOSING CURFEWS, TRYING

AGAIN TO SLOW THE SPREAD OF THE

CORONAVIRUS AS THE NUMBER OF

CASES CONTINUES TO BREAK

RECORDS.

THERE ARE NOW MORE THAN 12

MILLION REPORTED CASES IN THE

UNITED STATES AS OF THIS

MORNING, WITH NEARLY 200,000 NEW

CASES RECORDED YESTERDAY,

ACCORDING TO THE "NEW YORK

TIMES."

SOME STATES, INCLUDING NEW YORK

AND OHIO, HAVE ALREADY IMPOSED A

10:00 P.M. CURFEW.

IN CALIFORNIA, A LIMITED STAY-

AT-HOME ORDER WITH A 10:00 P.M.

CURFEW FOR NON-ESSENTIAL

GATHERINGS WILL BEGIN TONIGHT

FOR DOZENS OF COUNTIES, WHICH

COVER MOST OF THE STATE.

TAKEOUT AND DELIVERY FOR

RESTAURANTS AND GROCERY STORE

VISITS WILL STILL BE ALLOWED.

NEW CASES IN CALIFORNIA HAVE

MORE THAN DOUBLED IN THE PAST

TWO WEEKS AND HOSPITALIZATIONS

HAVE INCREASED 46%, ACCORDING TO

THE "NEW YORK TIMES."

GLOBALLY, THE VIRUS IS ALSO

STILL SPREADING.

IN TEHRAN TODAY, OFFICIALS

IMPOSED NEW RESTRICTIONS ON

TRAVEL AND NON-ESSENTIAL

BUSINESSES FOR MUCH OF IRAN AS

THE COUNTRY GRAPPLES WITH A"

THIRD WAVE" OF INFECTIONS.

IN MEXICO CITY, RAPID TESTING

KIOSKS ARE BEING SET UP AS THE

COUNTRY RECENTLY SURPASSED

100,000 DEATHS.

MEXICO'S DEATH TOLL IS FOURTH

HIGHEST IN THE WORLD BEHIND THE

UNITED STATES, BRAZIL AND INDIA.

PRESIDENT-ELECT JOE BIDEN AND

VICE PRESIDENT-ELECT KAMALA

HARRIS MET WITH TRANSITION

ADVISERS IN WILMINGTON,

DELAWARE, TODAY.

THEY HAD NO PUBLIC EVENTS.

THERE ARE RECOUNTS UNDER WAY,

INCLUDING IN TWO WISCONSIN

COUNTIES.

OTHER STATES ARE FINALIZING

THEIR VOTE COUNTS IN PREPARATION

FOR THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE TO

FORMALLY ANNOUNCE ITS DECISION

ON DECEMBER 14.

THE TRUMP CAMPAIGN LEGAL TEAM

CONTINUES TO PURSUE LAWSUITS

CHALLENGING BALLOTS IN SEVERAL

STATES, LOSING ALMOST ALL OF

THEM SO FAR.

PRESIDENT TRUMP INSISTS WITH NO

EVIDENCE THAT HE ACTUALLY WON,

SAYING IT AGAIN YESTERDAY AT A

WHITE HOUSE ANNOUNCEMENT ON

PRESCRIPTION DRUG PRICING.

THE PRESIDENT HAS MADE FEW

PUBLIC APPEARANCES SINCE THE

ELECTION.

TODAY, HE WENT TO HIS VIRGINIA

GOLF CLUB AGAIN AFTER ATTENDING

THIS YEAR'S G-20 LEADERS'

SUMMIT, WHICH IS BEING HELD

VIRTUALLY.

SECRETARY OF STATE MIKE POMPEO

ARRIVED IN DOHA, QATAR, TODAY

WITH PLANS TO ATTEMPT TO RESTART

NEGOTIATIONS FOR PEACE IN

AFGHANISTAN.

THE TALKS BETWEEN

REPRESENTATIVES FROM THE

DEMOCRATICALLY-ELECTED

GOVERNMENT OF AFGHANISTAN AND

TALIBAN INSURGENTS HAVE BEEN

FROZEN OVER A PROCEDURAL

DISAGREEMENT FOR MONTHS NOW.

EARLIER THIS WEEK, IT WAS

REPORTED THAT OFFICIALS ON BOTH

SIDES WERE IN COMMUNICATION AND

NEGOTIATIONS MIGHT RESUME.

THE TALKS HAVE TAKEN ON

INCREASED URGENCY IN LIGHT OF

THE PENTAGON'S RECENT

ANNOUNCEMENT OF PLANS TO REDUCE

U.S. TROOP LEVELS FROM 4,500 TO

2,500 IN JANUARY.

MEANWHILE, IN KABUL, AFGHANISTAN

TODAY, ROCKET ATTACKS STRUCK

RESIDENTIAL AREAS NEAR THE

AFGHANI CAPITAL'S GREEN ZONE.

AT LEAST EIGHT PEOPLE WERE

KILLED AND DOZENS MORE TAKEN TO

THE HOSPITAL WITH SERIOUS

INJURIES.

THE ISLAMIC STATE IN AFGHANISTAN

CLAIMED RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE

ATTACK.

ACCORDING TO A PENTAGON WATCHDOG

REPORT, ATTACKS IN AFGHANISTAN

HAVE INCREASED BY 50% IN THE

PERIOD BETWEEN JULY AND

SEPTEMBER OF THIS YEAR FROM

EARLIER IN THE YEAR.

FOR THE LATEST NATIONAL AND

INTERNATIONAL NEWS, VISIT

www.pbs.org/newshour.

>> Sreenivasan: TENS OF

THOUSANDS OF HONDURANS HAVE BEEN

LEFT HOMELESS AFTER FLOODING AND

DAMAGE CAUSED BY HURRICANE IOTA.

THE STORM STRUCK HONDURAS

EARLIER THIS WEEK AS A CATEGORY-

FOUR HURRICANE WITH SUSTAINED

WINDS OF 155 MILES PER HOUR.

RAIN FROM THE STORM FLOODED

NEIGHBORHOODS AND SWELLED

RIVERS.

IOTA WAS THE SECOND CATEGORY-

FOUR HURRICANE TO HIT THIS PART

OF CENTRAL AMERICA IN TWO WEEKS.

HURRICANE ETA CAUSED MORE THAN

130 DEATHS AND TRIGGERED

MUDSLIDES AS IT MADE ITS WAY

ACROSS THE REGION.

IOTA IS THE 30th NAMED STORM OF

THE ATLANTIC HURRICANE SEASON,

TOPPING OFF A RECORD YEAR THAT

RESULTED IN THE NATIONAL

HURRICANE CENTER RESORTING TO

THE GREEK ALPHABET FOR LETTERS.

AS THIS RECORD HURRICANE SEASON

OFFICIALLY COMES TO A CLOSE AT

THE END OF THIS MONTH, WE WANTED

TO UNDERSTAND MORE ABOUT WHAT'S

BEEN DISCOVERED ABOUT THE

CONNECTION BETWEEN CLIMATE

CHANGE AND EXTREME WEATHER

EVENTS LIKE HURRICANES.

I RECENTLY SPOKE WITH KEVIN

REED, AN ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR AT

STONY BROOK UNIVERSITY WHO LEADS

THE SCHOOL'S CLIMATE EXTREMES

MODELING GROUP.

I BEGAN BY ASKING HIM HOW

SCIENTISTS ARE TEASING OUT THE

EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON

INDIVIDUAL STORMS.

>> WHEN STORMS MAKE LANDFALL,

THEY MAKE AN IMPACT.

THEY HAVE HAZARDS.

AND THOSE HAZARDS COME THROUGH

THINGS LIKE STORM SURGE, HIGH

WIND SPEEDS AND RAINFALL, RIGHT?

BECAUSE EXTREME RAINFALL CAN

CAUSE FLOODING.

AND SO, ONE OF THE THINGS WE CAN

DO IS, WE CAN USE STATE-OF-THE-

ART MODELS THAT ARE USED FOR

FORECASTING STORMS, AND WE CAN

RUN THESE UNDER DIFFERENT

CONDITIONS THAT HAVE CLIMATE

CHANGE TO-DATE IN THE SIGNAL OR

REMOVED.

AND SO, WE BASICALLY COME UP

WITH TWO SETS OF REALITY.

>> Sreenivasan: SO, YOU'RE

TAKING A FORECAST LIKE WE WOULD

SEE ON THE WEATHER CHANNEL, AND

YOU'RE SAYING WHAT ARE THE

IMPACTS THAT CLIMATE CHANGE

COULD HAVE ON THIS STORM?

AND THEN, WE TAKE A LOOK AT KIND

OF TWO OUTCOMES-- WITH THE RAIN

AND WITHOUT THE RAIN-- THAT'S

ATTRIBUTABLE TO CLIMATE CHANGE?

>> YES.

AND SO, ANOTHER WAY TO PUT IT

IS, WE RUN A FORECAST JUST LIKE

WE TYPICALLY WOULD; THE

DIFFERENCE IS, WE ALSO RUN A

FORECAST IN WHICH WE'VE REMOVED

THE CLIMATE SIGNAL TO-DATE,

RIGHT?

SO, IN THE NORTH ATLANTIC,

THAT'S APPROACHING OVER ONE TO

TWO DEGREES FAHRENHEIT.

THE SEA SURFACE HAS-- HAS

INCREASED IN TEMPERATURE OVER

THE LAST 150-PLUS YEARS DUE TO

HUMAN-INDUCED CLIMATE CHANGE.

AND WE CAN REMOVE THAT SIGNAL

AND WE CAN RERUN THE FORECASTS.

AND SO, WE BASICALLY HAVE TWO

SETS OF FORECASTS, ONE WE CALL

THE ACTUAL FORECAST, RIGHT--

THE KIND OF THE REAL FORECAST--

AS WELL AS THE ONE IN WHICH WE

HAVE THIS COUNTERFACTUAL WHICH

WE'VE REMOVED WARMING.

>> Sreenivasan: WHEN YOU LOOK AT

A STORM-- SAY, FOR EXAMPLE, LIKE

HURRICANE LAURA NOW-- WHAT DOES

THIS TYPE OF MODELING TELL US?

>> YEAH, SO THIS TYPE OF

MODELING TELLS US THAT WHAT WE

CALL THE MAXIMUM ACCUMULATED

RAINFALL AMOUNT, WHICH IS JUST

THE FANCY WAY OF SAYING HOW MUCH

RAIN FELL DURING THE LIFETIME OF

THE STORM.

WE'RE SEEING INCREASES OF 5% TO

10%, RIGHT, MEANING THAT IF, AN

EXAMPLE OF HURRICANE LAURA, WE

HAD ABOUT 12 INCHES OF RAINFALL

IN SOME REGIONS.

AND SO, THAT'S AN INCREASE OF

ABOUT AN INCH IN SOME CASES OF

RAINFALL.

SO, WE'RE ATTRIBUTING HOW MUCH

RAINFALL IN AN INDIVIDUAL

HURRICANE IS DUE TO CLIMATE

CHANGE.

>> Sreenivasan: WHEN YOU ARE

LOOKING OUT INTO THE FUTURE, ARE

WE LIKELY TO SEE MORE STORMS OR

MORE INTENSE STORMS OR BOTH?

>> YEAH, SO THAT'S TO SOME

EXTENT AN OPEN QUESTION STILL.

AND THE CONSENSUS IS THAT THERE

WILL BE A DECREASE OR THE NUMBER

OF HURRICANES, FOR EXAMPLE,

GLOBALLY WILL REMAIN ABOUT THE

SAME OR DECREASE.

WHAT THAT MEANS FOR INDIVIDUAL

BASINS LIKE THE NORTH ATLANTIC

IS A LITTLE BIT HARDER TO

UNDERSTAND, IN PART BECAUSE

THERE ARE THINGS LIKE NATURAL

VARIABILITY FROM YEAR TO YEAR,

RIGHT?

BUT WE DO KNOW OUR MODELS DO

TELL US THAT THE STORMS ARE

BECOMING MORE INTENSE BOTH IN

TERMS OF THE-- THE MAXIMUM WIND

SPEED BUT ALSO IN THE AMOUNT OF

RAINFALL.

WE EXPECT ABOUT A 5%-7% INCREASE

IN RAINFALL WITHIN TROPICAL

CYCLONES, WITHIN HURRICANES FOR

EVERY DEGREE CELSIUS OF WARMING

THAT WE HAVE.

AND SO, IF YOU SEE IN THE NORTH

ATLANTIC, RIGHT, IF WE WERE TO

FLASH FORWARD 50 YEARS AND THE

NORTH ATLANTIC IS NOW TWO OR

THREE DEGREES WARMER THAN IT IS

NOW, THEN YOU COULD START TO

EXPECT UPWARDS OF OVER 10%,

MAYBE APPROACHING 20% INCREASES

IN TROPICAL CYCLONE RAINFALL.

>> Sreenivasan: WHAT ARE THE

DATA SETS THAT YOU'RE LOOKING AT

NOW THAT YOU HOPE WILL HELP

REFINE THE WAY THAT YOU MODEL

THINGS, THE WAY THAT PEOPLE CAN

PREPARE GOING FORWARD?

I MEAN, IS THERE A WAY THAT WE

COULD LOOK AT HURRICANE

FORECASTS WHEN WE'RE WATCHING TV

BEFORE THE STORM SETS IN AND

REALIZE THAT THIS IS GOING TO BE

WORSE EACH TIME BECAUSE OF ALL

OF THESE OTHER FACTORS OF SEA

LEVEL RISE AND OCEAN

TEMPERATURES WARMING?

>> YEAH, THESE TYPE OF ANALYSIS

IN WHICH WE'RE ABLE TO KIND OF

QUANTIFY THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE

CHANGE ON THINGS LIKE HURRICANES

AS WELL AS OTHER EXTREME WEATHER

EVENTS HAS DEFINITELY INCREASED

IN SOPHISTICATION, MEANING EACH

TIME WE DO THESE TYPE OF THINGS,

LIKE MOST THINGS IN LIFE, WE'RE

GETTING BETTER AT ANALYZING THE

DATA.

WE'RE GETTING QUICKER TURNAROUND

IN TERMS OF RUNNING SIMULATIONS.

AND I THINK THAT IN THE FUTURE,

WE COULD HAVE A SYSTEM IN WHICH

WE'RE DOING THAT REAL TIME.

NOT ONLY ARE WE EXPLORING THE

IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE

STORM THAT OCCURRED TO DATE BUT

ALSO PROVIDING SOME FUTURE, A

PEEK INTO THE FUTURE.

WHAT WOULD THE STORM LOOK LIKE

UNDER ONE OR TWO OR THREE

ADDITIONAL DEGREES OF WARMING?

AND I THINK THAT THAT WOULD HELP

BOTH INFORM DECISION MAKING,

RIGHT, TO SEE, OKAY, THIS STORM

WAS-- WAS REALLY IMPACTFUL.

HOW MUCH WORSE WOULD THIS STORM

BE IN THE FUTURE?

BUT ALSO, IT ALLOWS US TO

COMMUNICATE THAT THE IMPACTS OF

CLIMATE CHANGE ARE NOT 100 YEARS

OFF.

THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE

ARE HERE NOW.

THEY ARE CHANGING THE WEATHER

AROUND US, AND THEY ARE HAVING A

REAL IMPACT ON SOCIETY THROUGH

THAT.

>> Sreenivasan: ALL RIGHT.

KEVIN REED, ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR

AT STONY BROOK UNIVERSITY,

THANKS SO MUCH FOR JOINING US.

>> GREAT.

THANKS FOR HAVING ME.

>> Sreenivasan: LAST WEEK, NEW

YORK CITY'S ADMINISTRATION FOR

CHILDREN'S SERVICES PUBLISHED A

SURVEY THAT FOUND THAT MORE THAN

A THIRD OF KIDS IN THE CITY'S

FOSTER SYSTEM IDENTIFIED AS

LGBTQ.

THE SAME SURVEY FOUND THAT LGBTQ

FOSTER KIDS ARE MORE LIKELY TO

BE PLACED IN GROUP HOMES THAN

WITH FOSTER FAMILIES.

OTHER STUDIES THROUGHOUT THE

COUNTRY SHOW THAT THESE YOUTH

ARE OVERREPRESENTED IN THE

FOSTER SYSTEM.

TO LEARN MORE ABOUT THIS ISSUE,

NEWSHOUR WEEKEND CORRESPONDENT

YVETTE FELICIANO SPOKE WITH MARY

KEANE, A SENIOR ADVISOR AT YOU

GOTTA BELIEVE, A NEW YORK-BASED

ORGANIZATION THAT SPECIALIZES IN

PLACING FOSTER KIDS WITH

PERMANENT FAMILIES.

>> Reporter: SO, MARY, STARTING

OFF, WHAT WAS YOUR REACTION TO

THE FINDINGS FROM THE SURVEY

PUBLISHED LAST WEEK BY THE

ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN'S

SERVICES?

>> SO, THERE IS REALLY NOTHING

SURPRISING IN IT.

THIS INFORMATION IS KNOWN.

PEOPLE WORKING IN THE SYSTEM AND

WORKING WITH THESE YOUNG PEOPLE,

THEY'RE AWARE OF THE INCREASING

NUMBER OF TEENAGERS WHO ARE IN

CARE.

AND IN THAT POPULATION, WE ALL

KNOW THAT THERE ARE LGBTQ KIDS,

AND THEY HAVE WHAT I CALL A

DOUBLE WHAMMY.

YOU KNOW, THEY HAVE SORT OF

EXTRA STRUGGLES BEYOND WHAT THE

AVERAGE TEENAGER HAS.

>> Reporter: IN YOUR

EXPERIENCE, WHY DO SO MANY LGBTQ

YOUTH END UP IN FOSTER CARE?

>> SOME OF THEM HAVE THE SAME

CHALLENGES THAT OTHER KIDS HAVE

WHO WIND UP IN FOSTER CARE:

FAMILY DYNAMICS, FAMILY

STRUGGLES, FAMILY TRAUMA.

AND THEN, IN ADDITION, THERE'S

FAMILY REJECTION, FAMILIES WHO

JUST DON'T KNOW HOW TO HANDLE A

KID WHEN THEY COME OUT AND

IDENTIFY.

AND THAT'S-- YOU KNOW, I MEAN,

WE MAY BE IN NEW YORK AND WE MAY

THINK WE'RE VERY SOPHISTICATED

AND STUFF LIKE THAT, BUT THERE'S

STILL A LOT OF PEOPLE WHO HAVE A

CHALLENGE WITH THAT.

>> Reporter: AND ONCE THEY'RE

IN THE FOSTER CARE SYSTEM, WHAT

ARE THE UNIQUE CHALLENGES THAT

LGBTQ YOUTH FACE?

>> SO, I THINK, AGAIN, TO

EMPHASIZE,ALL KIDS IN CARE, I

THINK, FACE CHALLENGES.

IT'S NOT A GOOD PLACE TO BE.

TEENAGERS FACE SPECIAL

CHALLENGES BECAUSE THEY'RE JUST

LABELED.

THEY'RE SEEN AS PROBLEMS.

THEY'RE SEEN AS, YOU KNOW,

TROUBLED KIDS.

PEOPLE WHO TAKE KIDS, YOU KNOW,

AS FOSTER PARENTS AREN'T OFTEN

WILLING TO TAKE TEENAGERS IN

GENERAL.

AND THEN, YOU KNOW, YOU SAY,

WELL, THEY'RE LGBTQ ON TOP OF

THAT, AND THEYREALLY DON'T WANT

TO DEAL WITH IT.

THEY FREQUENTLY WIND UP IN

RESIDENTIAL TREATMENT CENTERS OR

GROUP HOMES BECAUSE THEY DON'T

HAVE FAMILIES THAT ARE WILLING

TO TAKE THEM.

AND THE LGBTQ YOUTH, WHERE

THEY'RE NOT IN A SPECIFIC LGBT

GROUP HOME, THEY FACE CHALLENGES

FROM PEERS WHO MAY NOT BE VERY

ACCEPTING OF THEM.

>> Reporter: SO, WHAT HAPPENS TO

THESE YOUNG PEOPLE ONCE THEY AGE

OUT OF THE FOSTER CARE SYSTEM?

>> SO, AGAIN, IT'S-- IT'S REALLY

VERY SIMILAR TO KIDS,ALLKIDS

WHO AGE OUT WITHOUT A FAMILY.

THEY WIND UP OVERREPRESENTED IN

JAILS.

INCARCERATION RATES ARE VERY

HIGH.

HOMELESSNESS-- THAT WAS IN THE

ARTICLE, TOO.

THE PERCENTAGE OF LGBTQ KIDS IN

THE HOMELESS POPULATION, A GREAT

MAJORITY OF WHICH HAD BEEN IN

FOSTER CARE.

ANY YOUTH WHO AGES OUT OF THE

SYSTEM WITHOUT A FAMILY IS

UNLIKELY TO SUCCEED.

>> Reporter: HOW DOES YOUR

ORGANIZATION, YOU GOTTA BELIEVE,

HELP LGBTQ YOUTH AND SUPPORT

THEM WHEN THEY'RE IN THE FOSTER

CARE SYSTEM?

>> ANY YOUTH THAT WE WORK WITH--

AND IT'S, FOR US IT'S THE SAME--

WE'RE FINDING THEM A FAMILY.

NOTHING ELSE MATTERS.

IF THEY CANNOT BE REUNIFIED WITH

THEIR BIRTH FAMILY-- AND THAT'S

THE FIRST ATTEMPT-- THEN YOU TRY

TO FIND SOMEONE IN THEIR CIRCLE.

AND THEY-- YOU KNOW, THEY'RE

OLDER KIDS; THEY KNOW A LOT OF

PEOPLE.

YOU TRY TO FIND SOMEBODY THERE

WHO CAN BE A PARENT FOR THEM.

AND IF NOT, WE HAVE PEOPLE WHO

COME IN-- I CALL THEM RANDOM

FAMILIES-- WHO ARE INTERESTED IN

PARENTING OLDER KIDS.

AND SO, WE PREPARE THEM.

WE TRAIN THEM.

ALL OF OUR TRAINERS, ALL OF OUR

PROGRAM STAFF ACTUALLY ARE

ADOPTIVE PARENTS AND ALUMNI OF

THE SYSTEMS.

SO, WE'RE-- THIS IS ALL VERY

PERSONAL FOR US.

AND THIS APPLIES TO WHETHER THE

YOUTH ARE LGBTQ OR STRAIGHT

KIDS, OR IF THEY'RE NOT EVEN

SURE WHAT THEY ARE YET.

OUR FAMILIES ARE TAUGHT THEY

HAVE TO UNCONDITIONALLY COMMIT

TO A CHILD THAT'S PLACED WITH

THEM.

>> Reporter: AND YOU YOURSELF

ARE A FOSTER PARENT.

>> YES.

>> Reporter: YOU KNOW, FROM

YOUR OWN PERSONAL EXPERIENCE,

WHAT ARE THE TAKEAWAYS ABOUT

YOUTH IN THE FOSTER CARE SYSTEM

AND WHAT THEY REALLY NEED TO

THRIVE OUTSIDE OF THE SYSTEM?

>> WHAT I LEARNED FROM THE KIDS,

BECAUSE I DIDN'T LEARN IT IN MY

TRAINING, I LEARNED FROM THE

KIDS WHAT THEY NEEDED WAS

SOMEONE TO REALLY JUST LOVE

THEM.

AND THAT'S A TERM THAT'S NOT

USED IN THE BUSINESS A LOT.

LOVE IS WHAT HEALS TRAUMA.

LOVE IS WHAT HEALS KIDS.

LOVE IS WHAT HEALS PEOPLE.

SO, WHAT THEY NEEDED WAS SOMEONE

WHO WAS COMMITTED TO THEM, WHO

SAW THEM FOR WHO THEY WERE, WHO

ACCEPTED THEM COMPLETELY.

IT DIDN'T MATTER WHAT THEIR

SEXUAL ORIENTATION WAS.

THEY'VE LOST THEIR FAMILY NOT

BECAUSE OF ANYTHING THEY'VE

DONE, AND THEY DESERVE TO HAVE A

NEW FAMILY-- AN ADDITIONAL

FAMILY, REALLY, USUALLY, BECAUSE

THEY STILL MAINTAIN THEIR

FAMILIES, BUT THEY HAVE A NEW,

COMMITTED FAMILY THAT WILL BE

THERE FOR THEM FOR A LIFETIME.

>> Reporter: MARY KEANE, SENIOR

CONSULTANT AT YOU GOTTA BELIEVE,

THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR JOINING

US.

>> THANK YOU FOR HAVING ME.

>> Sreenivasan: READERS AND FANS

WON'T FIND EARTH-SHATTERING

DETAILS IN ART GARFUNKEL'S BOOK,

"WHAT IS ALL BUT LUMINOUS: NOTES

FROM AN UNDERGROUND MAN."

BUT, IN THE YEAR SINCE ITS

PUBLICATION, THE

SINGER-SONGWRITER AND AUTHOR,

WHO TURNS 79 THIS MONTH,DOES

HAVE SOME FRESH INSIGHT ON HIS

LIFE AS ONE OF THE WORLD'S MOST

FAMOUS DUOS AND HIS LONGTIME

RELATIONSHIP WITH PAUL SIMON.

NEWSHOUR WEEKEND'S CHRISTOPHER

BOOKER HAS MORE.

>> ♪ HELLO DARKNESS,

MY OLD FRIEND

♪ I'VE COME TO TALK WITH YOU

AGAIN... ♪

>> Reporter: AFTER SO MANY YEARS

AND SO MANY SHOWS, AND SO MANY

QUESTIONS ABOUT HIS RELATIONSHIP

WITH HIS ON-AGAIN/OFF-AGAIN

PARTNER, ART GARFUNKEL HAS IN

RECENT YEARS BEEN WORKING ON

SECURING HIS SIDE OF THE STORY.

WHETHER IN HIS 2017 BOOK, "WHAT

IS ALL BUT LUMINOUS: NOTES FROM

AN UNDERGROUND MAN" OR THE

OCCASIONAL INTERVIEW, GARFUNKEL

IS TALKING.

I SAT DOWN WITH HIM JUST BEFORE

HIS BOOK WAS RELEASED IN

PAPERBACK.

>> I WAS VERY NERVOUS COMING

HERE TO DO THIS INTERVIEW, THAT

THIS IS ALL VERY SERIOUS STUFF.

THERE'S A LOT OF PEOPLE OUT

THERE.

I WANT THEM TO-- TO LIKE ME.

IN MY OPINION, I'VE BEEN UNDER

THE RADAR ALL MY PROFESSIONAL

LIFE.

IT'S TIME TO SAY "WHO IS ART

GARFUNKEL?"

♪ WHEN YOU'RE WEARY...

>> Reporter: WHILE SEEMINGLY NOT

INTERESTED IN THE COMPLETE

RETELLING OF HIS LIFE, GARFUNKEL

IS INDEED OFFERING NOTES THAT,

WHEN PUT TOGETHER, CAN BE

CONSIDERED PART MEMOIR AND PART

DIARY.

>> WHEN I WAS FIVE, I KNEW I

COULD SING.

I SANG IN THE ALLEYWAY IN OUR

HOUSE IN QUEENS.

I SANG WHEREVER THERE WERE--

WHEREVER THERE WAS GOOD REVERB:

TILED ROOMS, HALLWAYS,

SCHOOL.

WHEN THE KIDS WOULD FINISH

SCHOOL AND LEAVE, I WOULD LINGER

IN THE HALLWAY TO SING.

AND I DISCOVERED I HAD A NICE

VOICE, AND I WENT VERY PRIVATE

WITH IT.

AND WHEN I FOUND PAUL SIMON

THREE BLOCKS AWAY AT AGE 11, I

FOUND THE SAME KIND OF TURNED-ON

NEW YORK KID WORKING ON GETTING

BETTER AND BETTER AT SOMETHING,

THE GUITAR.

WE WERE NATURAL MATES.

WE HAVE WARMER TIMES AND COLDER

TIMES.

THE FACT THAT HE'S THIS QUEEN'S

FELLOW WHO'S SO DAMN DIFFERENT

FROM ME AND THAT WE MADE A

TOGETHERNESS IS A HELL OF A

TRICK.

>> Reporter: FOR THOSE HOPING

FOR MORE ABOUT HIS AT TIMES

TUMULTUOUS RELATIONSHIP WITH

SIMON, GARFUNKEL IS NOT READY TO

GO THERE, STICKING INSTEAD TO

THE CONTENT OFTHIS BOOK.

AND YOU YOURSELF SAY, YOU KNOW,

IF YOU'RE LOOKING FOR THE BIG,

DEEP BIOGRAPHY, THAT'S NOT THIS

BOOK.

THAT BOOK IS COMING.

>> YEAH.

>> Reporter: SO, IS THAT BOOK

COMING?

>> YEAH.

I'LL GET TO THAT.

IT WAS GREAT JOY TO WRITE THIS.

IT-- IT REALLY SUITED ME.

I FELT, EARLY IN THE GAME, I'M A

WRITER.

I CAN DO THIS.

SO, I'LL DO IT AGAIN, AND-- AND

I'LL GO INTO SIMON AND GARFUNKEL

MORE.

>> Reporter: WHAT GARFUNKELIS

OFFERING RIGHT NOW ARE BROAD

CONTEMPLATIONS ABOUT HIS LIFE

AND HOW HIS WORK MAY BE

REMEMBERED, BIG QUESTIONS THAT

FOR GARFUNKEL STARTED TO RING A

BIT LOUDER IN RECENT YEARS AS HE

STRUGGLED WITH THE LOSS AND

RECOVERY OF HIS SINGING VOICE.

>> WELL, WHEN I COULDN'T SING, I

BEGAN TO SIT AT THE ROUND TABLE

IN MY PLACE AND STARTED WORKING

ON THIS THING.

THAT BECAME AN ALTERNATE.

SO, THAT'S A BIG PART OF WHY I

WROTE IT.

I CAN'T SING, I'M STILL

CREATIVE.

>> Reporter: AND DID IT CHANGE

THE WAY YOU THINK OF YOUR OWN

LEGACY?

>> "LEGACY."

I'VE HEARD THAT WORD.

THEY LIKE THAT WORD A LOT THESE

DAYS.

I DON'T HAVE A LEGACY.

I DON'T KNOW WHAT THAT MEANS.

I HAVE A WIFE AND KIDS.

I HAVE A FAMILY.

I KNOW WHATTHAT MEANS.

WHATIS MY LEGACY?

THE WORLD AND ALL OF ITS

GLAMOROUS STARS IS A HIT PARADE.

THEY COME UP, AND THEN THEY GO

DOWN, EXCEPT FOR J.S. BACH.

HE SEEMS TO STAY UP THERE.

BUT I'M DISCOURAGED THAT HOW WE

LOVE CERTAIN PEOPLE AND THEN IT

FADES.

I'VE HEARD KIDS SAY, "SINATRA?

WHO'S SINATRA?"

THEY NEVER HEARD THAT WORD.

I TAKE THIS VERY POORLY.

I WANT THEM TO THINK SIMON AND

GARFUNKEL HAS-- THEY WERE

INDELIBLE, WE DID SOMETHING THAT

HAS VALUE THROUGH THE DECADES.

>> Reporter: AND YOU REALLY

QUESTION IF THAT'S GOING TO BE

THE CASE WITH THOSE RECORDS THAT

YOU MADE BACK THEN?

>> WELL, YOU KNOW, IT'S--

EVERYTHING'S HERE AND GONE.

THAT'S WHY I USED THE SINATRA

EXAMPLE.

YOU MEAN WE FORGOTTHAT NAME?

IT'S KIND OF ALL HERE AND GONE.

>> Reporter: BUT ISN'T THAT

EVERYTHING, ANYWAY?

>> AND ISN'T IT DISCOURAGING?

>> Reporter: I DON'T-- I DON'T

KNOW.

I'M OF TWO MINDS.

ON ONE HAND, I FEEL THAT ITIS

DISCOURAGING.

ON THE OTHER HAND, I FEEL LIKE

IT'S FREEING.

>> IT'S FREEING.

>> Reporter: BECAUSE WHY SUFFER?

WE'RE HERE TO DO OUR WORK, AND

IF THE TREE FALLS IN THE WOODS,

MAYBE SOMEONE'S THERE TO HEAR

IT.

>> "WE'RE HERE TO DO OUR WORK."

IS THE WORK WORTHWHILE OR

WORTHLESS?

LET'S SAY IT'S WORTHWHILE.

IS IT GOOD?

IS ITVERY GOOD?

IS IT EXTRAORDINARY?

IS IT WORTH SAVING AMONGST

CIVILIZATION?

DO WE WANT TO SAVE IT LIKE WE

SAVED BEETHOVEN?

IS ITREALLY WORTHWHILE?

THAT'S A KEY QUESTION, CERTAINLY

WHEN I'M RECORDING.

>> Reporter: I CONTEND, THOUGH,

THAT 100 YEARS FROM NOW, PEOPLE

ARE STILL GOING TO BE LISTENING

TO "THE SOUND OF SILENCE."

>> WELL, THANK YOU.

WE'LL SEE.

♪ ...AND WHISPERED

IN THE SOUND... ♪

>> Reporter: THESE QUESTIONS

ARE, OF COURSE, IMPOSSIBLE TO

ANSWER, BUT THEY ARE THE

QUESTIONS THAT BUSY GARFUNKEL'S

MIND.

AND DO YOU THINK THAT THE

ARTISTRY THAT COMES WITH

SINGING, DOES THAT ALLOW YOU

TO-- TO QUIET THESE THOUGHTS AND

FEELINGS?

>> YES, IT DOES.

IT'S ANOTHER PLACE.

WHEN YOU SING, AS YOU'RE IN THE

VERY FIRST LINE OF THE SONG,

YOU'RE IN ANOTHER PLACE.

IT'S PEACEFUL.

IT'S BELIEVING THAT SOMETHING'S

WORTHWHILE.

GIVING BEAUTY TO THE LINE IS A

WORTHWHILE ACTIVITY.

IT'S ANOTHER PLACE.

♪ I HAVE A PHOTOGRAPH

PRESERVE YOUR MEMORIES

♪ THEY'RE ALL THAT'S LEFT YOU.

(CHEERS AND APPLAUSE )

>>THIS IS PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND,

SATURDAY.

>> Sreenivasan: THE TEENAGER

ACCUSED OF KILLING TWO PEOPLE IN

MINNEAPOLIS DURING PROTESTS OVER

THE POLICE SHOOTING OF JACOB

BLAKE WAS RELEASED FROM JAIL

AFTER POSTING A $2 MILLION BAIL

YESTERDAY.

SHORTLY AFTER LEAVING JAIL, A

PHOTO OF KYLE RITTENHOUSE POSING

WITH ACTOR RICKY SCHRODER WAS

TWEETED BY A MEMBER OF

RITTENHOUSE'S DEFENSE TEAM.

HE FACES CHARGES OF INTENTIONAL

HOMICIDE, RECKLESS ENDANGERMENT

AND BEING A MINOR IN POSSESSION

OF A FIREARM.

RITTENHOUSE CLAIMS HE FIRED IN

SELF DEFENSE.

HE IS DUE BACK IN COURT FOR A

PRELIMINARY HEARING ON DECEMBER

3.

ITALY'S CULTURE MINISTRY

ANNOUNCED THE DISCOVERY OF

ANOTHER REMARKABLE FIND IN THE

RUINS OF THE ITALIAN CITY OF

POMPEII TODAY.

THE SITE IS CURRENTLY CLOSED TO

VISITORS BECAUSE OF THE

CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC, BUT

EXCAVATIONS ARE CONTINUING.

IN THE PAST FEW WEEKS,

ARCHAEOLOGISTS UNCOVERED THE

EXCEPTIONALLY WELL-PRESERVED

SKELETONS OF TWO MEN WHO DIED IN

THE VOLCANIC ERUPTION THAT

DESTROYED THE ANCIENT ROMAN CITY

ALMOST 2,000 YEARS AGO.

THE REMAINS WERE FOUND NORTHWEST

OF THE CENTER OF POMPEII, IN AN

UNDERGROUND CHAMBER IN WHAT WAS

A LARGE VILLA.

>> (translated ): THE TWO

VICTIMS FOUND IN THE LAST DAYS

ARE AN INCREDIBLE AND

EXTRAORDINARY TESTIMONY OF THAT

MORNING WHEN THE ERUPTION TOOK

PLACE.

>> Sreenivasan: SCIENTISTS

BELIEVE ONE OF THE MEN WAS IN

HIS THIRTIES, AND HIS REMAINS

STILL HAD TRACES OF A WOOL CLOAK

INDICATING HE MAY HAVE BEEN OF

HIGH STATUS.

THE SECOND MAN HAS TRACES OF A

TUNIC AND HAS A CRUSHED

VERTEBRAE, WHICH EXPERTS BELIEVE

IS EVIDENCE THAT HE WAS A SLAVE

WHO DID HEAVY LABOR.

THE ERUPTION OF MOUNT VESUVIUS

BURIED POMPEII AND ITS 13,000

RESIDENTS UNDER ASH, ROCK AND

DUST.

THE RUINS WERE NOT DISCOVERED

UNTIL THE 1600s, AND FOUR

CENTURIES LATER THE EXCAVATIONS

CONTINUE TO SHOW LIFE AS IT WAS

IN POMPEII WHEN IT WAS FROZEN IN

TIME.

>> Sreenivasan: WE'LL HAVE MORE

TOMORROW ON THE PRESIDENTIAL

TRANSITION, HOW COUNTRIES ARE

COPING WITH THE CORONAVIRUS

PANDEMIC, AND MORE NATIONAL AND

INTERNATIONAL NEWS.

THAT'S ALL FOR THIS EDITION OF

PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND.

FOR THE LATEST NEWS UPDATES,

VISIT www.pbs.org/newshour.

I'M HARI SREENIVASAN.

THANKS FOR WATCHING.

STAY HEALTHY AND HAVE A GOOD

NIGHT.

>>PBS NEWSHOUR WEEKEND IS MADE

POSSIBLE BY:

SUE AND EDGAR WACHENHEIM III.

THE ANDERSON FAMILY FUND.

BERNARD AND DENISE SCHWARTZ.

THE CHERYL AND PHILIP MILSTEIN

FAMILY.

BARBARA HOPE ZUCKERBERG.

THE LEONARD AND NORMA KLORFINE

FOUNDATION.

CHARLES ROSENBLUM.

WE TRY TO LIVE IN THE MOMENT,

TO NOT MISS WHAT'S RIGHT IN

FRONT OF US.

AT MUTUAL OF AMERICA, WE

BELIEVE TAKING CARE OF TOMORROW

CAN HELP YOU MAKE THE MOST OF

TODAY.

MUTUAL OF AMERICA FINANCIAL

GROUP, RETIREMENT SERVICES AND

INVESTMENTS.

ADDITIONAL SUPPORT HAS BEEN

PROVIDED BY:

CONSUMER CELLULAR.

AND BY:

AND BY THE CORPORATION FOR

PUBLIC BROADCASTING, A PRIVATE

CORPORATION FUNDED BY THE

AMERICAN PEOPLE.

AND BY CONTRIBUTIONS TO YOUR

PBS STATION FROM VIEWERS LIKE

YOU.

THANK YOU.