Craft in America

S10 E1 | FULL EPISODE

CALIFORNIA episode

Explore the diverse craft traditions and innovations in the Golden State. Featuring Pomo basket weaver Corine Pearce, silversmith Randy Stromsoe, the Arts and Crafts architecture of Greene and Greene, stained glass artists at Judson Studios, cabinetmakers James Ipekjian and Jack Ipekjian, and textile artist Deborah Cross. PBS premiere 12/21/18

AIRED: December 21, 2018 | 0:55:06
ABOUT THE PROGRAM
TRANSCRIPT

MAN: THERE IS A SENSE OF FREEDOM IN CALIFORNIA

TO JUST BE INSPIRED AND DO WHAT YOU THINK IS BEAUTIFUL.

SECOND MAN: CALIFORNIA, ESPECIALLY THE CREATIVE INDUSTRIES--

FILM, TECH, THE ARTS--

PRIDES ITSELF ON FORWARD-THINKING

BECAUSE CALIFORNIA ATTRACTS ARTISTS THAT THINK DIFFERENTLY.

WOMAN: THE GREENES WERE INFLUENCED BY THE ENVIRONMENT,

BY THE LIFESTYLE, THE CLIMATE.

THEY WERE SEARCHING FOR THEIR OWN ARCHITECTURE

THAT THEY CONSIDERED TO BE A CALIFORNIA ARCHITECTURE.

THIRD MAN: IT'’S REALLY NICE IF YOU CAN COME HOME

FROM A GOOD MORNING OF SURFING,

COME AND JUMP IN HERE,

AND THEN JUST CREATE PIECES.

SECOND WOMAN: POMO BASKETRY, IT'’S A SKILL

THAT'’S REALLY BEING LOST.

I WANT OUR CULTURE TO BE A LIVING CULTURE.

THIRD WOMAN: WEARABLE ART IN CALIFORNIA

GREW OUT OF THE HIPPIE MOVEMENT.

FOURTH MAN: I WOULD LIKE TO SAY IT'’S ALL A HAZE.

IF YOU REMEMBER IT, YOU WEREN'’T THERE.

FIFTH MAN: THE MOUNTAINS TO THE NORTH

AND THE OCEAN TO THE WEST AND THE DESERT OUT TO THE EAST.

I KNOW THAT I WOULDN'’T BE WHO I AM

AND I WOULDN'’T BE DOING WHAT I DO ANYWHERE ELSE.

IT MUST BE BECAUSE OF CALIFORNIA.

I DON'’T KNOW WHAT ELSE TO ATTRIBUTE IT TO.

WOMAN: ♪ I LOVE YOU, CALIFORNIA ♪

♪ OOH ♪

CAPTIONING MADE POSSIBLE BY CRAFT IN AMERICA, INC.

WOMAN: I'’M THE GREAT-GREAT-GRANDDAUGHTER

OF MARY FRANCISCO,

ONE OF THE BEST POMO BASKET WEAVERS THAT EVER LIVED.

I NEVER MET MY GREAT-GRANDMA,

AND I DIDN'’T HAVE ANY LIVING WEAVING TEACHERS.

WHEN I WAS 9 YEARS OLD,

I WENT ON A SCHOOL CAMPING TRIP.

WE HAD A PRESENTER COME TALK ABOUT BASKETS,

AND THEY SHOWED SOME OF THEIRS

AND THEY TALKED ABOUT THEIR TYPE.

AND THAT NIGHT WE CAMPED UNDER A WILLOW TREE,

AND I HAD A DREAM.

I WAS WALKING TO A HOUSE THAT'’S NOT THERE ANYMORE,

AND MY GREAT-GRANDMA WAS THERE.

AND SHE TOLD ME TO SIT ON HER LAP.

AND SHE PUT HER HANDS LIKE THIS,

AND I PUT MY HANDS LIKE THAT.

AND SHE SAID, "YOU KNOW, YOU CAN WEAVE.

YOU HAVE MY HANDS. YOU CAN WEAVE."

I WOKE UP THE NEXT DAY AND THAT WILLOW TREE

THAT WE WERE CAMPING UNDER LOOKED VERY DIFFERENT.

I WAS ABLE TO LOOK AT THIS WILLOW TREE

WITH BASKET MAKER'’S EYES.

SO I HARVESTED, I WOVE A LITTLE BASKET THAT DAY,

AND I'’VE BEEN HARVESTING AND WEAVING

EVER SINCE THEN.

WE ARE IN NORTHERN CALIFORNIA,

A COUPLE HOURS NORTH OF SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA.

THIS IS MY HOME RESERVATION,

THIS IS MY HOME RANCHERIA,

AND THIS IS REALLY WHAT WE CONSIDER THE HEARTLAND

OF POMO COUNTRY.

WOMAN: POMO PEOPLES WERE NOT EVER ONE NATION, ONE TRIBE.

THAT IS A CONVENIENT TERM THAT ANTHROPOLOGISTS

GAVE TO WHAT WERE REALLY MANY INDEPENDENT PEOPLES.

WE ALL LIVE IN WHAT'’S TODAY SONOMA COUNTY,

MENDOCINO COUNTY, LAKE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA.

POMO PEOPLE MADE BASKETS USING MORE TYPES

OF WEAVING TECHNIQUES THAN ANYBODY ELSE EVER HAS.

AND THAT WAS POSSIBLE IN PART

BECAUSE IT'’S AN AREA THAT IS ONE OF THE MOST BOTANICALLY DIVERSE

IN THE WORLD.

BASKETS WERE THE ESSENTIAL TOOL OF LIFE.

FROM BIRTH TO DEATH, FROM HUNTING AND FISHING

TO GATHERING AND COOKING,

POMO BASKETS ARE THE BEST IN THE WORLD,

AND THAT'’S THROUGHOUT TIME AND THROUGHOUT SPACE.

AND THE BASIS OF THAT JUDGMENT

IS REALLY THE SHEER TECHNICAL VIRTUOSITY.

PEARCE: I'’M TAKING THIS REDBUD--

THIS IS ONE OF THE MAIN MATERIALS THAT WE USE

FOR WEAVING IN POMO BASKETS.

AND I HARVEST IT--

THIS IS FROM THIS YEAR, FROM OCTOBER.

YOU SPLIT THAT BIG BRANCH INTO HALF,

AND THEN YOU HAVE TO THIN IT EVEN FINER,

AND YOU HAVE TO GET RID OF ALL THESE LITTLE KNOTS.

I'’M BASICALLY JUST SPLITTING IT OVER AND OVER AGAIN

UNTIL I GET IT THE THICKNESS THAT I WANT

AND THE WIDTH THAT I WANT.

WITH REDBUD, IT'’S VERY IMPORTANT

TO HAVE THE BARK ON ONE SIDE

AND THE BEAUTIFUL WHITE CREAM COLOR ON THE INSIDE.

GET TO DO A WHOLE BUNCH OF THEM AND COIL THEM,

AND THEN I ACTUALLY HAVE TO DRY FOR 6 MONTHS TO A YEAR

BEFORE YOU CAN WEAVE WITH THEM.

SO WHAT I'’M DOING THIS YEAR

I WILL WEAVE WITH NEXT YEAR.

SO YOU HAVE TO PLAN AHEAD.

SMITH-FERRI: BASKETS ARE THE PLANTS.

YOU HAVE TO HAVE GOOD MATERIALS

BEFORE YOU CAN MAKE REALLY FINE BASKETS.

THE THING ABOUT PLANTS IS THEY'’RE NOT EXACT.

YOU KNOW, THEY'’RE PRETTY SHAGGY.

AND TO DO REALLY FINE BASKETRY, IT HAS TO BE PRECISELY THE SAME,

SAME DIAMETER, SAME TAPER, SAME WIDTHS.

IF YOU DON'’T HAVE IT, IT WILL NOT WORK.

YOU HAVE TO GET SOMETHING THAT'’S IMPRECISE

AND MAKE IT PERFECT, AND THAT IS--

IT IS JUST SOMETHING THAT IS SO DIFFICULT TO DO.

REALLY BY THE TIME YOU SIT DOWN AND START WEAVING,

YOU ARE ALMOST FINISHED IN TERMS OF THE AMOUNT OF TIME

THAT YOU'’RE GOING TO SPEND AND THE ACTIVITIES

THAT YOU NEED TO PRODUCE THAT PIECE.

PEARCE: I ALWAYS WATCH THE DAFFODILS.

ONCE THE DAFFODILS COME ALL THE WAY UP

AND START TO DIE BACK, THEN THE SEDGE ROOT IS READY.

ALMOST ALL OF THE TAN COLOR

THAT YOU SEE IN POMO BASKETS IS MADE WITH THE SEDGE ROOT.

ALL RIGHT. OK.

PEARCE, VOICE-OVER: TO PROCESS SEDGE, YOU HAVE TO HAVE A PATCH.

WE ACTUALLY TRANSPLANTED THIS PATCH.

ITS NORMAL LOCATION IS ALONG RIVERBEDS

OR IN LOAMY SOIL ALONG THE REDWOODS.

IT JUST LOOKED LIKE TUFTS OF GRASS.

AND I'’M GONNA USE A DIGGING STICK

AND I'’M GONNA DIG DOWN INTO THE SOIL

TO FIND THE ROOT.

OK, STICK YOUR HAND RIGHT HERE.

- YOU FEEL THAT? - YEAH.

PEARCE: THAT'’S A ROOT.

PEARCE, VOICE-OVER: AND THEN I'’M GONNA FOLLOW THE ROOT

UNTIL IT COMES TO THE END.

IF YOU GET THERE TOO SOON, IT'’S TOO WET AND MUDDY

AND YOUR ROOTS ARE TOO SHORT.

IF YOU WAIT TOO LONG,

YOU'’RE FIGHTING SNAKES AND SPIDERS,

AND THAT'’S NOT FUN.

A PRETTY UNIVERSAL POMO LEGEND

IS THAT SPIDER WOMAN, WHO LIVES IN THE SEDGE ROOT,

HELPED US LEARN HOW TO WEAVE.

AND SO OUT OF RESPECT FOR HER,

ONCE SHE'’S IN THE SEDGE ROOT,

WE DON'’T GO AND BOTHER HER.

GOOD JOB.

SMITH-FERRI: IT'’S FAIRLY SOPHISTICATED ENVIRONMENTAL KNOWLEDGE,

BECAUSE YOU CAN ONLY PROCESS MATERIAL

AT A PARTICULAR POINT OF THE YEAR.

YOU HAVE TO UNDERSTAND WHAT ARE THE SIGNS YOU'’RE LOOKING FOR,

WHAT IS THAT PLANT REALLY DOING?

PEARCE: YOU KNOW HOW TO SPLIT IT?

MAN: I DON'’T.

PEARCE: I WILL SHOW YOU.

SMITH-FERRI: MY GRANDMA USED TO SAY,

YOU KNOW, YOU CAN'’T GO TO A STORE AND FIND IT,

BUT YOU ALSO CAN'’T GO OUTSIDE AND JUST FIND IT.

IT'’S THIS COLLABORATION OF YOU AND THE PLANTS

WORKING TOGETHER TO PROVIDE YOU AS A BASKET MAKER

THE KIND OF MATERIAL THAT YOU NEED.

AND THIS IS WHY WE DEVELOPED THE GARDENS

HERE AT THE GRACE HUDSON MUSEUM.

PEARCE: WE TRANSPLANTED THE BASKETRY MATERIALS LAST YEAR,

SO THIS IS REALLY THE FIRST YEAR OF FOCUSED TRAINING.

- NO FLOWERS CAME OUT. - NOPE.

PEARCE: IT'’S GOING STRAIGHT FOR LEAVES.

SMITH-FERRI: YEP.

PEARCE, VOICE-OVER: THE GRACE HUDSON IS A REALLY GOOD RESOURCE

FOR THE WHOLE COMMUNITY IN NORTHERN CALIFORNIA.

SMITH-FERRI: THE ARTIST GRACE HUDSON

WAS BORN IN 1865 NEARBY TO UKIAH,

OUT IN THE COUNTRY AS WE SAY HERE.

HER CAREER WAS A SERIES OF OIL PORTRAITS

OF POMO INDIAN PEOPLE.

AND SHE LIVED DURING A VERY DIFFICULT TIME

FOR NATIVE PEOPLE IN THIS AREA,

NATIVE PEOPLE THROUGHOUT CALIFORNIA.

AND REALLY, SHE SINCERELY SAW THAT POMO PEOPLE

WERE NOT GONNA SURVIVE.

SHE HAD SEEN SO MANY PEOPLE DIE FROM DISEASE,

FROM STARVATION, FROM VIOLENCE,

PEOPLE ARE DISPLACED.

SO SHE WAS REALLY TRYING TO PRESERVE SOMETHING

THAT SHE THOUGHT WAS GOING TO DISAPPEAR.

GRACE HUDSON, THANKFULLY, WAS WRONG.

POMO PEOPLE ARE STILL AROUND TODAY.

PEARCE: THE GRACE HUDSON'’S A GREAT RESOURCE.

YOU CAN GO THERE AND ASK TO TOUCH AND HOLD THE BASKETS.

THE OILS FROM YOUR HANDS AND FROM YOUR FACE

ARE GOOD FOR YOUR BASKETS.

WHEN I GET TO HOLD OLD BASKETS,

I SNUGGLE THEM BECAUSE IT'’S SO GOOD FOR THEM.

THEY'’RE LIVING THINGS.

SMITH-FERRI: THIS IS THE OLDEST BASKET IN OUR COLLECTION.

WE KNOW IT'’S AT LEAST 150 YEARS OLD

BECAUSE WE KNOW THAT IT WAS GIVEN AS A GIFT

TO GRACE HUDSON'’S FAMILY IN 1860

WHEN THEY MOVED TO POTTER VALLEY.

POMO BASKETS, BESIDES BEING THE STUFF OF EVERYDAY LIFE,

HAD A LOT OF SOCIAL CURRENCY.

THEY WERE GIVEN AS GIFTS AT SIGNIFICANT LIFE EVENTS

AND TO CEMENT TIES AND FRIENDSHIPS.

PEARCE: IN NORTHERN CALIFORNIA,

WE LIKE TO DO SITTING CRADLES,

WHICH IS A U-SHAPE,

AND THE BABY'’S BUTT GOES HERE.

OK, SO THEY SIT LIKE, LIKE IT'’S A SWING.

THIS IS MADE OUT OF WILLOW.

THIS IS PEELED AND UNPEELED WILLOW,

AND THIS SUPPORT ROD IS IN EACH ONE OF THESE.

IT'’S MADE OUT OF SPLIT BLACK OAK,

WHICH IS EXTREMELY STRONG.

THE RIM, AND IT'’S NOT A HANDLE,

IT'’S MADE OUT OF OAK.

IT'’S VERY IMPORTANT SPIRITUALLY.

OUR STAPLE FOOD SUPPLY IS ACORNS,

SO IT'’S A WAY OF TYING OUR PLANT FAMILY TO THE BASKET.

YOU DON'’T MAKE CRADLES UNTIL THE BABY'’S ACTUALLY BORN,

SO THAT BABY HAS A TON OF INFLUENCE

ON WHERE YOU HARVEST, WHAT THE SEASON IS,

HOW YOU PUT IT TOGETHER, IF THAT BABY'’S--

LIKE, IF YOU'’RE ALREADY FEELING SOMETHING SPECIAL

FOR THAT BABY, YOU PUT IT IN THE BASKET.

I PUT LOVE IN EVERY STITCH,

AND EVERY SINGLE STICK IS A CONSCIOUS CHOICE FOR A CRADLE.

EVERY SINGLE BASKET ON THE TABLE TODAY

YOU GUYS COULD MAKE.

THIS IS ALL THE TECHNIQUE THAT YOU KNOW.

YOU'’RE MASTERS OF THIS WEAVE.

PEARCE, VOICE-OVER: THIS IS AN EDUCATION PROGRAM

FOCUSED AT CHILDREN.

LITTLE KIDS CAN'’T WEAVE ON THEIR OWN,

SO THEY HAVE TO BRING A GROWNUP.

SO AT THIS POINT, I'’M HAVING MORE GROWNUPS

AND ELDERS WEAVING,

BUT THEY STILL BRING THE KIDS.

WHEN YOU'’RE STARTING TO SEPARATE THEM INTO INDIVIDUALS,

THEN YOU ADD ANOTHER SPOKE.

PEARCE, VOICE-OVER: I LIKE TO TEACH BASKETRY

BECAUSE IT CONNECTS US ALL AS HUMANS.

- ARE YOU MISSING A BLACK ONE? - I'’M NOT.

PEARCE, VOICE-OVER: FIRST I TAUGHT NATIVES

FROM ALL OVER THE COUNTRY AND CANADA.

- 3 MORE RED ONES. - OK.

PEARCE, VOICE-OVER: AND THEN I WENT TO LEBANON

AND TAUGHT BASKETRY.

AND I'’VE BEEN TO EUROPE AND TAUGHT BASKETRY.

AND WHAT I REALIZED IS THAT IT DOESN'’T MATTER

WHAT TRIBE ON THE PLANET YOU'’RE FROM,

YOU ALL STILL MADE BASKETS.

[INDISTINCT CHATTER]

EVERYONE ALREADY HAS A BASKET IN THEM,

AND I'’M JUST HELPING THEM TO BRING IT OUT.

WE'’D HAD A FIRE LAST YEAR.

IT RIPPED THROUGH OUR VALLEY.

WE HAD WINDS UPWARDS OF 75 MILES AN HOUR,

AND THE HUMIDITY WAS NOTHING.

IT WAS A FIRESTORM.

WE LOST KIDS AND ELDERS AND...

IT WAS VERY IMPACTFUL.

WE LOST SOMETHING LIKE 15% OF THE HOMES

THAT WE HAVE IN OUR VALLEY.

WHEN I SEE A FRIEND WHO LOST THEIR ENTIRE HOUSE,

THEY ALSO LOST ALL THE OAK TREES

THAT I HARVEST CRADLE BASKET RIMS FROM.

OR WHEN I DRIVE DOWN IN THE VINEYARD,

ALL THE REDBUD THAT I HARVESTED, THEY'’RE ALL GONE.

MY BASKET GARDEN TOTALLY BURNT DOWN,

AND WE LOST A LOT,

BUT WE ACTUALLY PULLED OUR COMMUNITY TOGETHER.

WE HAVE THESE CLASSES SO THAT COMMUNITY MEMBERS

CAN COME AND LITERALLY WEAVE WHAT THEY LOST.

MY INTENTION IS TO HEAL THE LAND AND THE COMMUNITY,

AND THAT'’S WHAT WE'’RE DOING HERE.

THIS IS ART.

IT'’S CULTURALLY RELEVANT.

IT'’S HISTORICALLY SIGNIFICANT.

IT'’S MORE THAN THAT.

THIS IS HOW WE CONNECT TO OUR LAND.

WOMAN: ♪ COUNTERFEIT HEART, COUNTERFEIT PLEASURE ♪

MAN: WE'’RE UP HERE, WE'’RE LOOKING AROUND THINKING

WHAT A BEAUTIFUL AREA THIS IS,

AND, "GOD, I'’D LOVE TO LIVE AROUND HERE."

AND, "BEING AN ARTIST, MAYBE I CAN LIVE ANYWHERE I WANT TO LIVE."

SO I PUT IN MY RESIGNATION.

YOU KNOW, LIKE, "WELL, I'’M GONNA GO

"AND LIVE SOMEWHERE BEAUTIFUL

"AND I'’M GONNA GET SOME GOOD EXERCISE AND GO SURFING

AND HAVE SOME FUN,"

AND SO THAT'’S WHAT HAPPENED.

WOMAN: ♪ COUNTERFEIT PLEASURE ♪

SECOND WOMAN: SOME PEOPLE CALL IT THE MIDDLE KINGDOM.

IT'’S THE CENTRAL COAST OF CALIFORNIA,

AND IT'’S PARADISE.

WE MOVED IN 1979.

I GOT A JOB AT HEARST CASTLE,

AND RANDY HAD TO FIND A PLACE TO DO HIS SILVERSMITHING.

IT TOOK AN ACT OF BRAVERY, BUT IT WAS THE BEST DECISION

WE EVER MADE.

RANDY: THIS GUY.

RANDY, VOICE-OVER: SO MUCH OF SILVERSMITHING

IS THE CONCEPTUALIZING AND THE PLANNING OF THE PIECE.

YOU SPEND SO MUCH TIME THINKING ABOUT

HOW TO PUT EVERYTHING TOGETHER,

HOW TO GET FROM "A" TO "Z,"

AND THEN WHEN YOU START DOING IT,

YOU KIND OF RELY ON THE CRAFT.

YOU JUST KIND OF GET INTO BEING A CRAFTSMEN

AND A SILVERSMITH, AND YOU DO THE RIGHT SILVERSMITHING THING.

WE'’RE MAKING A BOWL.

AND THE PROCESS IS METAL SPINNING.

I COAX THE METAL UP OVER THE WOOD FORMS

THAT I'’VE TURNED.

THIS LATHE WAS MADE IN 1900,

AND IT OPENS UP TO SPIN SOMETHING 44 INCHES IN DIAMETER.

SO I CAN SPIN A BOWL THIS BIG IF I WANTED TO,

IF I COULD.

[CHUCKLES]

BUT IT'’S A GREAT WORKHORSE,

AND IT'’LL PROBABLY AROUND ANOTHER HUNDRED YEARS

'’CAUSE I CAN'’T SEE HOW YOU COULD HURT THIS THING.

MY FIRST JOB WAS PAINTING MURALS IN SURF SHOPS,

AND THEN I TRADED FOR SURFBOARDS.

FRIDAY EVENING OUR PARENTS WOULD DROP US OFF IN MALIBU

AND THEN PICK US UP, YOU KNOW, SUNDAY AFTERNOON.

WE'’D SURF ALL DAY

AND GO AND SLEEP ON THE BEACH

AND HAVE A LITTLE BONFIRE.

THE WAVES WERE PERFECT.

THE WEATHER WAS PERFECT.

WE WERE JUST KIDS. WE WERE JUST SOAKING IT ALL IN.

I LOVED SHAPE AND I LOVED SCULPTURE. I LOVED FORMS.

AND I WANTED TO CREATE MOVEMENT.

I WANTED TO GIVE THE ILLUSION

OF LIKE A WAVE BREAKING AND THE RIPPLES IN THE OCEAN.

BUT I ALSO WANTED TO MAKE IT LOOK LIKE IT WAS SPINNING ROUND,

AND I ALSO WANTED TO MAKE A PETAL, A BLOOM,

LOOK LIKE IT'’S OPENING UP.

SO I WANTED TO CREATE ALL THIS MOVEMENT

OUT OF SOMETHING THAT WAS JUST A SHAPE.

I CREATE ILLUSIONS,

AND YOU SEE THE REFLECTIONS COMING BACK

AND YOU AREN'’T QUITE SURE WHAT YOU'’RE LOOKING AT,

AND I THINK THAT'’S FASCINATING.

IF I CAN GET PEOPLE TO LOOK AT SOMETHING FOR 5 MINUTES

AS OPPOSED TO 5 SECONDS, I'’VE DONE MY JOB.

WHEN I WAS 18, I ENROLLED IN L.A. VALLEY COLLEGE.

ONE OF THE CLASSES WAS CALLED CRAFTS WORKSHOP.

THE FIRST PROJECT WE MADE IN THE CLASS

WAS A BAND RING.

AND I CARVED IT AND DID ALL THIS WORK TO IT,

AND I WAS THINKING, "I LIKE THIS FEEL.

"I LIKE THE WAY THIS FEELS TO DO THIS PROCESS.

THIS IS A NICE PROCESS."

AND THE TEACHER GRABBED THAT PIECE FROM ME,

SHE HELD IT UP TO THE CLASS AND SHE GOES,

"EVERYBODY, WE HAVE A CRAFTSMAN IN THE CLASS."

THROUGH THE CLASS, WE WENT ON A TOUR OF A SILVERSMITH'’S STUDIO,

THE SILVERSMITH TO THE STARS OF HOLLYWOOD,

PORTER BLANCHARD.

I WALKED IN THERE, I WAS JUST BLOWN AWAY.

I LOOKED AT ALL THE WOOD AND LEATHER

AND STEEL TOOLS, THINGS THAT WERE A HUNDRED YEARS OLD,

THINKING, "BY GOD, LOOK AT THIS PLACE.

THIS IS FASCINATING."

THEN I SAW THESE SILVER COFFEE SETS HE WAS MAKING,

THESE SILVER CANDLESTICKS 24 INCHES TALL

WITH S-CURVES ON THEIR BASE

AND JUST, OH, THE CRAFTSMANSHIP

AND THE EXECUTION AND THE DESIGN.

I WAS JUST--I WAS FLOORED.

I COULD NOT BELIEVE IT.

PORTER WAS DEMONSTRATING SOME RAISING ON AN OVAL DISH.

HE SEES ME WALK BY AND HE GOES,

"HEY, HOW ABOUT YOU?

YOU COME OVER HERE AND TRY THIS OUT."

I LOOKED AT WHAT HE WAS DOING

AND I KNEW WHAT TOOLS TO USE.

AND SO I GRABBED THE RIGHT RAISING HAMMERS

AND I GRABBED THE RIGHT STAKES AND I START DOING IT,

AND HE GOES, "WELL, JUST HAMMER A HALF INCH HIGHER

"THAN WHAT YOU'’RE HAMMERING.

"YOU HAVE TO GET THE LEVERAGE.

YOU HAVE TO HIT A LITTLE BIT ABOVE."

ALL THE SUDDEN THE THING STARTS GOING AROUND,

I START RAISING AND IT STARTS MOVING AND EVERYTHING'’S GOING.

AND HE'’S GOING, "WOW, YOU WANT TO COME BACK AND WORK?"

AND I'’M THINKING, "THIS GUY'’S 84 YEARS OLD.

"HE'’S WORLD RENOWNED. LOOK AT THIS WORK HE'’S DOING.

"THIS IS, LIKE, UNBELIEVABLE.

AND WHAT AN OPPORTUNITY THIS WOULD BE."

I DECIDED, "YES, I'’M GONNA COME BACK."

THIS IS A PIECE THAT PORTER BLANCHARD USED TO MAKE

FOR HIS TEA SET.

THIS IS NOT SOMETHING I REALLY WANT TO MAKE A TEAPOT OUT OF,

BUT IT'’S SOMETHING I LOVE FOR THE BOWL SHAPE.

PORTER WAS DESIGNING PEWTER AND SILVER

WITH A MODERNIST FEEL TO IT,

BUT HE WASN'’T ONLY JUST A MODERNIST,

HE HAD HIS OWN SET OF IDEAS,

AND HE DIDN'’T FOLLOW ANYBODY ELSE'’S PROTOCOL

OR THOUGHT PROCESS.

HE JUST DID WHAT HE WANTED TO DO.

THIS IS PORTER BLANCHARD'’S ACTUAL HANDWORK ON THIS.

HE HAD A SET OF DRAWERS LIKE THIS

JUST FULL OF DRAWINGS.

THESE ARE MADE BY HAND.

ALL THIS SORT OF WIRE WORK HERE WAS ALL FILED IN.

THIS IS ALL HAND FILED AND THIS IS ALL HAND CHASED.

THIS IS THE OVAL GEORGIAN SCROLL.

PORTER ORIGINALLY DID IT FOR JOAN CRAWFORD AND CARY GRANT,

BACK IN THAT ERA.

JOAN CRAWFORD WAS HIS BEST CUSTOMER.

SHE HAD THOUSANDS OF HIS PIECES.

THEY NEVER SAW EACH OTHER IN PERSON,

BUT THEY SPOKE ON THE PHONE ALMOST DAILY,

AND THEY'’D SPEAK FOR AN HOUR OR TWO A DAY.

SO THEY'’RE LIKE BEST FRIENDS, BESTIES,

WITHOUT EVER SEEING EACH OTHER.

PORTER WAS A MAN BEFORE HIS TIME.

HE WAS INTO HEALTH FOOD. HE WAS INTO EXERCISE.

HE HAD IT ALL GOING ON.

WE WERE MAKING BIG SILVER PLATTERS,

AND I WAS HOLDING THEM FOR HIM AND TWISTING THEM

AND MOVING WITH HIM.

AND IT WAS TWO OF US WORKING AS ONE.

IT WAS A GREAT EXPERIENCE.

I REALIZED I WASN'’T GOING TO HAVE TOO MANY YEARS WITH HIM

AND I WANTED TO GAIN AS MUCH KNOWLEDGE AS I COULD.

WE WORKED WEEKENDS. WE WORKED OVERTIME.

WE WORKED NONSTOP.

WE HAD A VAULT FULL OF SILVER,

WE HAD A SHOP FULL OF TOOLS,

AND IF I MESSED ANYTHING UP,

ALL I HAD TO DO WAS MELT IT DOWN AND GO RIGHT BACK

AND DO IT AGAIN.

IT WAS A TIME THAT YOU NEVER CAN DUPLICATE.

SO I JUST FILLED IT UP WITH SUBSTANCE,

AND IT'’S GONNA SUPPORT IT WHILE I DO MY CHASING.

AND I'’M GOING TO THROW THIS INTO THE FREEZER.

I'’M GONNA FREEZE IT,

AND WE'’RE GONNA COME BACK AND CHASE IT

WHEN IT'’S FROZEN.

[INDISTINCT CHATTER]

[RANDY CHUCKLES]

LISA: WE FOUND THIS PIECE OF LAND BY ACCIDENT.

WE HAVE 28 ACRES.

WE GROW WALNUTS AND ASIAN PEARS,

PLUMS, APPLES, GRAPES.

WE HAVE A 5-ACRE VINEYARD.

OUR KIDS BASICALLY GREW UP GOING DOWN TO THE CREEK,

PICKING FLOWERS, CATCHING CRAWDADS,

DOING ALL KINDS OF THINGS THAT ARE KIND OF MORE COUNTRY LIVING

SORT OF THINGS.

WOMAN: I GREW UP TRAVELING TO DIFFERENT ARTS FESTIVALS.

IT WAS SUPER FUN.

THERE WAS USUALLY A MUSICAL GROUP.

AND MY DAD, HE'’D TAKE A BREAK FROM THE FESTIVALS,

WE'’D GO EXPLORE THE DIFFERENT MUSICAL ACTS.

AND GROWING UP IN HIS WORKSHOP,

HE ALWAYS HAD MUSIC PLAYING AS WELL.

AND A LOT OF MY MEMORIES I HAVE OF MUSIC,

I HAVE HIS HAMMERS ALSO GOING AT THE SAME TIME, SO...

YEAH, IT'’S PRETTY SPECIAL.

RANDY: I'’VE TAKEN THIS BOWL AND I'’VE FROZEN IT.

I WANTED THE SUBSTANCE TO SOLIDIFY AND BECOME FIRM

SO MY CHASING WENT INTO A HARD SURFACE.

TO ESTABLISH THE LINES, I HAVE TO HAVE A FIRM SUBSTANCE.

AND AS IT THAWS AND BECOMES SOFTER,

MY CHASING WILL BECOME MORE PRONOUNCED,

I'’LL GET MORE CURVES AND MORE SHAPE TO MY PIECES.

CHASING ENCOMPASSES MANY DIFFERENT THINGS--

SURFACE ORNAMENTATION.

AND THIS IS FLUTING.

I'’M USING THE LIGHT TOOL TO ESTABLISH THE LINE,

TO GET THE LINE STARTED,

THEN I USE HEAVIER TOOLS TO MAKE IT A DEEPER LINE,

AND THEN I'’LL TAKE OTHER TOOLS AND ACTUALLY START SHAPING IT

AND CREATING THE ROUNDNESS OF THE FORMS.

[TAPPING]

IN 1993, I RECEIVED A LETTER, AND IT SAID,

"WE HAVE CHOSEN 35 AMERICAN CRAFTSMEN TO BE PART

"OF THE FIRST COLLECTION OF AMERICAN CRAFTS

"IN THE WHITE HOUSE,

AND YOU'’RE INVITED TO BE IN IT."

I HAD BEEN PLAYING AROUND WITH THIS IDEA,

JUST THE LOOK OF A DOME, MORE OF A DOME LOOK,

AND WITH THE 3-TIERED EFFECT PLAYING ON 3s

WITH COLUMNS ON IT WITH GOLD AND SILVER.

IT KIND OF SEEMED LIKE A WHITE HOUSE BOWL TO ME.

SO I SAID, "HOW ABOUT THIS PIECE?"

AND IT WORKED OUT PERFECT.

IT LOOKED VERY FITTING IN THE WHITE HOUSE.

WE WERE INVITED BACK TO THE WHITE HOUSE

FOR THE OPENING OF THE WHITE HOUSE CRAFT COLLECTION.

I FELT SO FORTUNATE TO BE INCLUDED INTO THIS GROUP,

AND IT WAS A GREAT NIGHT.

LISA: HANDMADE OBJECTS ARE BECOMING SO RARE,

ESPECIALLY IN THE METALSMITH WORLD

WITH 3-D IMAGING AND DIFFERENT AVENUES

PEOPLE ARE TAKING NOW TO MAKE METALWORK AND JEWELRY.

WHEN SOMETHING IS HANDMADE FROM BEGINNING TO END

BY ONE PERSON,

I CAN'’T NOT BELIEVE THAT PART OF THEIR SOUL

IS IN THAT PIECE.

IT WILL LAST FOREVER AND EVER AND EVER.

RANDY: I LOVE BEING WHERE WE ARE

AND I LOVE HAVING A SHOP LIKE THIS.

IT IS REALLY NICE IF YOU CAN COME HOME

FROM A GOOD MORNING OF SURFING,

COME AND JUMP IN HERE,

AND THEN JUST CREATE PIECES.

IT'’S NOT MUCH OF A BETTER LIFESTYLE.

WOMAN: ♪ HOME IN PASADENA ♪

♪ HOME WHERE GRASS IS GREENER ♪

MAN: THE ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENT WAS A REACTION

TO THE OVERINDUSTRIALIZATION OF SOCIETY.

THE ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENT IN CALIFORNIA

RECOGNIZED A CLOSER CONNECTION WITH NATURE.

PASADENA WAS A LOCUST FOR ITS OWN PARTICULAR EXPRESSION

OF THE ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENT,

AND THAT'’S LARGELY THANKS TO THE PRESENCE

OF TWO BRILLIANT ARCHITECTS, CHARLES AND HENRY GREENE

FROM ABOUT 1893 ON.

THE MOVEMENT WAS AN APPROACH TO DESIGN AND CRAFT

THAT INCORPORATED A HIGH LEVEL OF HANDWORK.

AND I CAN'’T THINK OF A PLACE WHERE IT'’S BETTER EXPRESSED

THAN HERE AT THE GAMBLE HOUSE.

WOMAN: THE GAMBLE HOUSE IS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT

PIECES OF RESIDENTIAL ARCHITECTURE

IN OUR COUNTRY AND PROBABLY INTERNATIONALLY.

IT'’S A CELEBRATION OF AMERICAN CRAFT

AND DECORATIVE ARTS.

IT'’S A TIMELESS PIECE OF ARTS AND CRAFTS ARCHITECTURE.

CALIFORNIA THE SETTING HAD A BIG INFLUENCE

ON CHARLES AND HENRY GREENE.

THEY WERE INFLUENCED BY THE ENVIRONMENT,

BY THE LIFESTYLE, THE CLIMATE,

AND THEY WERE SEARCHING FOR THEIR OWN ARCHITECTURE

THAT THEY CONSIDERED TO BE A CALIFORNIA ARCHITECTURE.

BOSLEY: THE GAMBLE HOUSE WAS SEEN AS A RADICAL STATEMENT

ON THE LAND WHEN IT WAS BUILT IN 1908.

AND WHEN THE GAMBLES OCCUPIED IT,

THEY KNEW THEY WERE MOVING INTO A WORK OF ART.

WOMAN: I CAME HERE AS A CHILD FOR SUNDAY LUNCH.

IT WAS SORT OF A COMMAND PERFORMANCE THAT WE BE HERE.

WE WERE ALLOWED AFTER OUR LUNCH

TO PUT OUR PLAY CLOTHES ON

AND ROAM AROUND WHEREVER WE WANTED TO GO IN THE HOUSE.

I THINK THE DINING ROOM WAS MY FAVORITE

BECAUSE OF THE FAMILY TOGETHER.

THIS WAS A HOME,

AND WE LIKE TO THINK OF IT STILL AS A HOME.

SUTHERLIN McLEOD: I LIVED HERE IN THE HOUSE

WHILE I WAS STUDYING ARCHITECTURE AT USC.

I WAS SO FORTUNATE TO BE ABLE TO EXPERIENCE IT AS A HOME

AS THE GAMBLES DID.

I WAS ABLE TO EXPERIENCE THIS BUILDING

AS THE GREENES DESIGNED IT TO BE EXPERIENCED.

THE GREENES WERE EXPLORING HOW TO BRING GOOD DESIGN

TO THE DAILY LIVES OF THE PEOPLE WHO INTERACT WITH IT,

WHETHER IT BE ARCHITECTURE, DECORATIVE ARTS,

TEXTILES, FURNISHINGS.

FOR THE GREENES, NO DETAIL WAS TOO SMALL

TO BE CONSIDERED AND DONE WELL.

BOSLEY: ONE OF THE REASONS THE GREENES HAVE THE REPUTATION

FOR HIGH-ART ARCHITECTURE AND BEAUTIFUL CRAFTSMANSHIP

THAT THEY HAVE IS BECAUSE OF THE MAKERS.

THEY HAD PUT TOGETHER A GROUP OF PEOPLE

WHO WERE ABLE TO EXECUTE AT THE LEVEL THAT THEY WERE DESIGNING AT.

MAN: THE HALLS WERE A PAIR OF BROTHERS,

JOHN AND PETER HALL.

THEY WERE ESSENTIALLY THE ONLY CONTRACTORS

WHO WERE BUILDING THE FURNITURE AND LIGHTING

FOR THE GREENE AND GREENE FIRM.

PETER WAS A GENERAL CONTRACTOR

AND JOHN WAS HIS SHOP FOREMAN.

AND THEY HAD THEIR OWN SHOP HERE IN PASADENA.

IN ALMOST ALL GREENE AND GREENE-DESIGNED CHAIRS,

THE WIDTH AT THE BACK IS NARROWER

AND IT'’S WIDER AT THE FRONT.

AND THE LEGS ARE NOT SQUARE,

THEY'’RE PARALLELOGRAMS.

AND THAT SHAPE IS TO MEET THE ANGLE

CREATED BY THAT TAPERING IN THE BACK.

THE HALLS CAME UP WITH A TECHNIQUE

FOR HOW TO DO THE JOINERY ON THESE PARALLELOGRAM LEGS.

IN ADDITION TO CUTTING THE MORTISE FOR THE TENON,

YOU HAVE TO CUT A SECONDARY MORTISE

TO HOUSE THE ENTIRE RAIL.

MAN: THERE IS A SIMPLICITY THAT HIDES

THE COMPLEXITY IN THE HALL-BUILT

GREENE AND GREENE-DESIGNED PIECE.

IT WAS THE HALLS'’ UNDERSTANDING OF WOOD

AND SEASONAL WOOD MOVEMENT

THAT ACTUALLY CONTRIBUTED TO SOME OF THE DESIGN ELEMENTS

THAT WE SEE IN THE GREENES'’ WORK.

THERE'’S JUST THIS INTERPLAY OF UNDERSTANDING

THAT HAD TO EXIST, AND IT AFFECTS THE FINAL OUTCOME.

BOSLEY: THE GREENES DESIGNED A SMALL HANDFUL OF HOUSES

ON THE SCALE OF THE GAMBLE HOUSE

AND AT THIS LEVEL OF DESIGN AND QUALITY,

AND ONE OF THEM WAS THE BLACKER HOUSE

ON THE OTHER SIDE OF TOWN HERE IN PASADENA.

IT'’S A 12,000-SQUARE-FOOT HOUSE,

COMPARED TO THE APPROXIMATELY 8,000-SQUARE-FOOT HOUSE

THAT THE GAMBLES HAD.

JAMES: THE BLACKER HOUSE NEEDED A COMPLETE RESTORATION,

WHICH BEGAN IN 1994 AND HAS CONTINUED TO THIS DAY.

THE REPRODUCTIONS THAT I'’VE DONE ARE BUILT

TO EXACTLY MATCH WHAT WAS ORIGINALLY CREATED.

IN ORDER TO RECREATE THE DESIGNS OF GREENE AND GREENE,

IT WAS NECESSARY TO UNDERSTAND THE METHODOLOGY

THAT THE HALLS USED IN JOINING THE VARIOUS PIECES

OF WOOD TOGETHER,

TO UNDERSTAND WHAT THE DIFFERENT MATERIALS WERE,

TO UNDERSTAND WHAT THAT INLAYED SURFACE REALLY WAS.

JACK: WE'’RE DOING A GREENE AND GREENE-DESIGNED CHAIR

FROM THE THORSEN HOUSE IN BERKELEY.

AND THIS CHAIR HAS INLAY IN THE CREST RAIL.

THE CHAIR IS MADE OF MAHOGANY.

MOST OF THE VINE AND BRANCH AND LEAVES

ARE MADE OF WHITE OAK.

THE ROOT, WHICH IS DARKER IN COLOR,

IS MADE OF ROSEWOOD.

WHEN YOU WANT TO ACHIEVE THE LOOK,

WHEN YOU WANT IT TO LOOK AUTHENTIC TO THE WAY IT WAS DONE,

YOU REALLY HAVE TO MAKE IT THE WAY IT WAS MADE.

WE'’RE NOT USING A MODERN TOOL LIKE A RANDOM ORBIT SANDER.

WE ARE USING THE TOOLS THE HALLS WERE USING--

HAND PLANES AND SCRAPERS AND SANDPAPER

THE WAY THAT THEY WERE USING IT.

WE STARTED BY TAKING A TRACING

OF THE ORIGINAL CREST RAIL.

FROM THERE WE MAKE OUR OWN DRAWING.

AND WE CUT OUT EACH PAPER PATTERN.

THOSE PAPER PATTERNS THEN GET GLUED

TO THE INLAY MATERIAL WE'’RE USING.

IT CAN BE WOOD, IT CAN BE PRECIOUS METALS,

IT CAN BE STONE.

WE TAKE A JEWELER'’S SAW

AND WE CUT OUT ALL OF THOSE PUZZLE PIECES.

WE ARRANGE THEM ON THE BACKGROUND

AND WE INSCRIBE AROUND IT WITH A KNIFE.

THESE MATERIALS ARE INLAYED INTO THE SURFACE.

SO YOU NEED TO EXCAVATE A POCKET

APPROXIMATELY 1/16 TO AN 1/8 OF AN INCH,

DEPENDING ON THE SIZE,

SO YOU HAVE TO GET IT VERY, VERY PRECISE.

WE GLUE THE PUZZLE PIECES IN.

AFTER THE GLUE IS DRY, WE CARVE THOSE PIECES

TO GIVE IT A 3-D SCULPTURAL EFFECT.

THERE'’S A TACTILE TEXTURE TO THE WORK.

JAMES: ESSENTIALLY, THERE HAVE ONLY REALLY EVER BEEN TWO COMPANIES

THAT HAVE EVER BUILT GREENE AND GREENE-DESIGNED FURNITURE

FOR A GREENE AND GREENE-DESIGNED HOUSE.

THAT WAS THE HALLS AND THAT WAS ME.

I GOT TO DO THAT.

IT WAS--IT WAS, AND CONTINUES TO BE,

THIS ABSOLUTELY INCREDIBLE EXPERIENCE.

BOSLEY: THE GAMBLE HOUSE WAS BUILT AS A WINTER HOME.

AND THERE ARE THINGS ABOUT THIS HOUSE

THAT MAKE A TREMENDOUS AMOUNT OF SENSE

IN THE CLIMATE AND TOPOGRAPHY OF PASADENA

AND THE LIFESTYLE OF CALIFORNIA.

THE ENTRY HALL OF THE GAMBLE HOUSE IS ONE OF THE GREAT SPACES

IN AMERICAN DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE.

THE TREMENDOUS LEADED ART GLASS TRIPTYCH,

THIS GREAT TREE WITH SPREADING BRANCHES.

THE IDEA OF NATURE IS A DOMINANT FEATURE

AND TRANSFORMS THE EMOTIONS OF PEOPLE

WHO WALK IN THE DOOR.

WE FEEL VERY PROFOUNDLY A SENSE OF CALM AND BEAUTY

WHEN WE'’RE SUDDENLY IN THIS COMPLETELY DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENT.

MAN: GLASS IS THE PERFECT MEDIUM TO SEE

THIS MARRIAGE OF ART AND ARCHITECTURE

WHICH HAS BEEN DONE FOR NEARLY A THOUSAND YEARS NOW.

AND GLASS IS JUST THIS AMAZING MATERIAL.

THE COLOR IS WORKING WITH TRANSMITTED LIGHT

AS OPPOSED TO REFLECTED LIGHT,

AND SO IT ADDS A WHOLE '’NOTHER DIMENSION

TO HOW AN ARTIST CAN WORK.

THE JUDSON STUDIOS WAS FOUNDED IN LOS ANGELES IN 1897

BY MY GREAT-GREAT-GRANDFATHER AND HIS 3 SONS.

AND WE'’VE BEEN MAKING STAINED GLASS

IN LOS ANGELES FOR OVER A HUNDRED YEARS.

JUDSON MANUFACTURED THE WINDOWS FOR FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT

AT THE HOLLYHOCK HOUSE,

AS WELL AS THE ENNIS HOUSE A LITTLE BIT LATER.

THE JUDSON STUDIOS ARE BASED RIGHT HERE IN THE ARROYO SECO,

WHICH WAS THE LOCATION WHERE A LOT OF THE ARTISTS

AND ARTISANS SETTLED

BECAUSE IT FIT RIGHT IN BETWEEN THE MILLIONAIRES OF PASADENA

AND THE BUSINESS DISTRICT OF DOWNTOWN LOS ANGELES.

CALIFORNIA AT THAT TIME WAS ALSO A PLACE OF RENEWAL.

WILLIAM LEES JUDSON CAME HERE FROM CHICAGO FOR HEALTH REASONS,

BUT FOUND RENEWED LIFE AND ENERGY.

THERE WAS A VERY OPTIMISTIC MENTALITY

A LOT OF PEOPLE HAD THAT PLAYED OUT IN THEIR WORK.

CALIFORNIA ATTRACTS ARTISTS WHO THINK DIFFERENTLY,

BUT ALSO THE CLIENTELE.

CALIFORNIA PROVIDED A MARKET FOR THESE ARTISTS,

AND WE'’RE STILL IN A GROWTH AREA

WHERE THEY'’RE STILL BUILDING CHURCHES

AND THEY'’RE STILL BUILDING COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

AND MUSEUMS.

THAT HAS A REALLY STRONG INFLUENCE

ON THE JUDSON STUDIOS.

WE'’VE ALWAYS BEEN LOOKING FOR NEW WAYS

TO EXPRESS GLASS.

WE'’VE BEEN ABLE TO DO SOMETHING A LITTLE BIT DIFFERENT

AND START FUSING GLASS.

FUSING GLASS IS A VERY CONTEMPORARY, MODERN APPROACH

TO THE USE OF GLASS.

MAN: IS EVERYONE ON A THUMB?

BLACKMAN: THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FUSED AND STAINED GLASS

IS THAT FUSED GLASS WAS DESIGNED

TO HAVE EVERY COLOR BE COMPATIBLE.

DIFFERENT COLORS OF GLASS HEAT AND CONTRACT AT DIFFERENT RATES.

AND IF YOU WANT TO MELT THEM TOGETHER,

ONE OF THEM IS GONNA COOL FASTER THAN THE OTHER ONE,

WHICH WILL CAUSE IT TO CRACK.

SO WE HAD A VERY LARGE PALLET OF GLASSES

THAT ALL HAVE THE SAME COEFFICIENT OF EXPANSION,

WHICH MAKES IT SO WE CAN ADD AS MANY COLORS AS WE WANT

INTO ONE SINGLE PIECE OF GLASS WITHOUT STRESS.

JUDSON: ALL OF THE PROJECTS THAT WE DO HERE

AT JUDSON STUDIOS ARE CUSTOM DESIGNED.

AND SO WE START BY GATHERING INFORMATION

FROM A CLIENT AND PUTTING THAT DOWN

IN A ROUGH SKETCH FORM IN THE COMPUTER.

WOMAN: BEING ABLE TO DESIGN THINGS ON THE COMPUTER

AND BEING ABLE TO CHANGE THEM JUST SAVES US A LOT OF TIME.

AND WHEN MOVING FROM DESIGN TO THE FULL SIZE,

IT ALSO SAVES US A LOT OF TIME

BECAUSE WE CAN JUST PRINT SOMETHING

THAT'’S AT THE ACTUAL SIZE.

IT'’S CALLED THE CARTOON.

JUDSON: THE FULL-SIZE CARTOON THEN IS USED

BY THE CUTTERS TO CUT UP SHEETS OF MANILA PAPER

THAT BECOME TEMPLATES TO CUT THE GLASS.

AND THE GLASS IS CUT BY HAND WITH A SIMPLE STEEL WHEEL

THAT RUNS ON THE SURFACE OF THE GLASS

AND IS BROKEN INTO PIECES.

[WOMAN SPEAKING SPANISH]

JUDSON: IT'’S TAKEN TO THE PAINTERS

IF IT'’S PAINTED ON,

AND THEN THE PAINTERS PAINT AND FIRE ON THE GLASS.

MAN: THE COLOR COMES FROM THE GLASS.

AND WHAT I DO IS MOSTLY CREATING LIGHT AND SHADOW

AND OUTLINES TO CREATE AN IMAGE.

WE'’LL DO WATER-BASED PAINT FIRST,

AND THEN WE'’LL DO OIL-BASED,

THEN WE'’LL FIRE IT AFTER.

AND IF WE NEED TO DO MORE LAYER ON TOP,

WE CAN PAINT IT AND FIRE IT AGAIN.

JUDSON: ONCE IT'’S FIRED, IT CAN COME BACK FOR GLAZING,

WHICH IS THE LEADING OF THE PIECES.

THE LEADING IS BASICALLY CHANNELS OF LEAD

THAT ARE WRAPPED AROUND THE PIECES OF GLASS AND SOLDERED

WHEREVER THOSE JOINTS MEET.

CORDOVA: IT'’S EASY TO WORK WITH LEAD

BECAUSE WE CAN BEND IT, YOU KNOW.

I HAVE 35 YEARS IN THE STAINED GLASS.

I LOVE THIS JOB.

NO MATTER HOW DIFFICULT IT IS,

I ENJOY IT MORE WHEN IT'’S MORE DIFFICULT.

JUDSON: BEING THE PRESIDENT OF AN OLD, TRADITIONAL LEGACY STUDIO,

IT'’S A TRICKY THING BECAUSE YOU WANT TO KEEP

THE QUALITY AND REPUTATION OF THE COMPANY

WHILE AT THE SAME TIME REACHING OUT

AND LOOKING FOR NEW WAYS TO PUSH THE MEDIUM OF GLASS.

THE SENSE OF CRAFT IN THE HUMAN HAND

IN OUR ART AND DESIGN

IS MUCH MORE DESIRABLE NOW THAN IT HAS BEEN

IN THE RECENT PAST.

AND SO I THINK THERE'’S A RENEWED INTEREST

IN ART FORMS THAT WORK IN DIFFERENT MATERIALS,

NOT ONLY IN STAINED GLASS BUT OTHER MEDIUMS AS WELL.

[CHOIR VOCALIZING]

GAMBLE HIRREL: I ALWAYS THOUGHT THE GAMBLE HOUSE

WAS WHAT EVERYBODY'’S GRANDPARENTS'’ HOUSE WAS LIKE.

WHEN I WAS A SOPHOMORE IN HIGH SCHOOL,

THE HOUSE OPENED TO THE PUBLIC,

AND I REMEMBER STANDING IN LINE TO GET INSIDE MY GRANDPARENTS'’ HOUSE

AND REALIZING JUST EVERYTHING THAT THE GREENES PUT INTO IT

FROM THE JOINERY TO THE CARPETS

TO THE PEGS IN THE FURNITURE.

THIS REALLY WAS SOMETHING EXTREMELY SPECIAL.

JACK IPEKJIAN: IT'’S HARD TO DENY THE SENSE OF FREEDOM

THE GREENES MUST HAVE FELT BEING HERE IN CALIFORNIA.

IN HIS WRITINGS CHARLES TALKS ABOUT

THE IMPORTANCE OF CLIMATE AND THE ENVIRONMENT

AND THE EFFECT THAT THAT HAS ON HIS DESIGNS.

JACK: THERE'’S A FREEDOM IN CALIFORNIA.

THERE IS INSPIRATION FROM THE PAST

AND THERE'’S A FEARLESSNESS TO GO BEYOND IT.

SUTHERLIN McLEOD: THE GREENES WERE ACTUALLY

QUITE FORWARD-THINKING AND QUITE MODERN

AND VERY INFLUENTIAL IN OUR MID-CENTURY MODERN MOVEMENT

THAT CAME OUT OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA.

THE GAMBLE HOUSE IS AS RELEVANT TODAY

AS WHEN IT WAS BUILT.

[WOMAN VOCALIZING]

WOMAN: I THINK THERE'’S 250 CRAFT STUDIOS IN SANTA CRUZ.

THERE'’S CERAMIC STUDIOS, GLASS STUDIOS.

IT'’S A GREAT ARTIST COMMUNITY.

I KNOW PEOPLE WOULD SAY, "OH, A CALIFORNIA ARTIST,"

BUT BEING CREATIVE IS, LIKE, WHO I AM.

MAKING CLOTHES IS WHO I AM.

IT'’S MY WORLD, AND I LOVE IT.

MY MOM SEWED, AND SHE TAUGHT US TO SEW.

WHEN I WAS, I WOULD SAY JUNIOR HIGH,

MY MOM TAUGHT ME ON THIS MACHINE, THIS LITTLE SINGER,

AND IT'’S JUST SIMPLE.

IT'’S NOT INVOLVED TO THREAD OR--

IT JUST MAKES ME HAPPY WHEN I SIT AT THIS MACHINE.

I STARTED OUT--OF COURSE IT WAS THE SIXTIES,

AND, YOU KNOW, THE SIXTIES WERE ALL ABOUT

BACK TO THE LAND.

AND SO WE WANTED TO MAKE EVERYTHING.

I WOULD GET THE RAW WOOL AND CARD IT,

AND THEN I HAD TO SPIN IT,

AND THEN I WOULD WEAVE WITH THE YARN THAT I SPUN.

I HAD MET GORDON.

WE WERE LIVING TOGETHER, AND I TAUGHT HIM TO WEAVE.

AND HE WOULD DO THE SHOWS WITH ME.

I WAS DOING SCARVES AND PILLOWS. I WAS DOING CARPETS.

I KIND OF BUSINESS-WISE KNEW THAT WOMEN

WERE GONNA SPEND MORE ON CLOTHES THAN ON CARPETS,

SO I WOVE AND MADE CLOTHES.

WOMAN: THE MUSIC WAS OUTRAGEOUS.

PEOPLE WERE GROWING THEIR HAIR LONG

AND THEN ALL OF THE FLAMBOYANT CLOTHING.

THERE WAS ALSO ALL THE CROCHET AND THE BEADS.

IT WAS JUST PART OF THE LAIDBACK, REALLY RELAXED,

SOMETHING TO DO WITH YOUR HANDS.

MAN: I WOULD LIKE TO SAY IT'’S ALL A HAZE.

YOU KNOW, IF YOU REMEMBER IT, YOU WEREN'’T THERE.

BENNETT: IT WAS AN OVERALL REBELLION.

PEOPLE WANTED TO CHOOSE SIDES.

ONE WAY WAS TO DRESS APPROPRIATELY OR NOT.

I'’D SEE WEARABLE ART AS SOMETHING

THAT REALLY RISES ABOVE THE AVERAGE,

WAY ABOVE THE AVERAGE,

AND BECOMES SOMETHING OTHER THAN JUST A COAT

OR YOUR GRANDMOTHER'’S HAND-KNITTED SHAWL.

LEVENTON: WEARABLE ART IS CLOTHING MADE BY PEOPLE

WHO IDENTIFY AS ARTISTS,

USUALLY FROM THEIR OWN HANDMADE TEXTILES.

AND ORIGINALLY IT WAS PIECES THAT WERE ONE OF A KIND.

BENNETT: THIS COAT WAS COMMISSIONED AND CREATED FOR ME.

THE ELEMENTS ARE JUST SO DRAMATIC.

IT WAS A WONDERFUL PIECE.

I JUST--I LOVE IT. I STILL LOVE IT.

JANET LIPKIN INCORPORATED

INTERESTING MATERIALS IN HER WORK,

PREDOMINANTLY CROCHET, BUT A LOT OF THEM

ARE EMBELLISHED WITH BEADS.

I WISH I WERE A BETTER HAT PERSON.

I WOULD HAVE WORN THEM FAR MORE.

LEVENTON: WEARABLE ART IN CALIFORNIA

GREW OUT OF THE HANDMADE, DO-IT-YOURSELF IMPULSE...

AND THE IDEA THAT MASS-PRODUCED CLOTHING IS SOULLESS.

TIE-DYEING, THE QUINTESSENTIAL HIPPIE DECORATIVE TECHNIQUE

IS A VERY SIMPLE FORM OF SHIBORI DYEING.

IT IS ONE OF THE KEY TECHNIQUES FOR ARTWEAR.

A LOT OF ARTISTS WERE USING THE GARMENT AS METAPHOR.

YOU HAVE GARMENTS THAT ANTHROPOMORPHIZE PEOPLE.

YOU HAVE GARMENTS THAT ARE POLITICAL.

YOU HAVE GARMENTS THAT ARE LANDSCAPES.

AND MANY PEOPLE WERE THINKING OF THESE GARMENTS

NOT ONLY AS HANGING ON THE BODY,

THEY WERE ALSO THINKING ABOUT THEM AS HANGING ON THE WALL.

THERE WAS THIS DUAL WEARABLE, UNWEARABLE ASPECT TO THEM.

IT BEGAN WITH THE TEXTILE AND THIS LABORIOUS,

LOVING, OBSESSIVE HAND-MAKING PROCESS.

CROSS: I WANT TO SEE THE RED ONE, THIS ONE HERE.

- SHOULD I SET IT? - YEAH.

CROSS, VOICE-OVER: WHEN I SAW WHAT OTHER WEAVERS WERE DOING,

IT WAS LIKE THE COCOON.

IT WAS MUCH MORE FLOWY, UNCONSTRUCTED.

AND I KNEW I COULD DO BETTER.

I KNEW HOW TO SEW CLOTHES,

SO I COULD DO MY WOVEN,

BUT MAKE IT MORE FITTED.

IF YOU CUT HAND WOVEN, IT JUST FALLS APART.

AND PEOPLE ALWAYS THOUGHT, "OH, THAT MUST HAVE BEEN SCARY

TO CUT UP YOUR WOVEN," BUT YOU KNOW WHAT,

THE FABRIC MEANS NOTHING UNLESS YOU MAKE IT INTO SOMETHING

WHERE SOMEBODY LOVES TO PUT IT ON.

THAT'’S A REALLY GOOD FEELING.

DOING THE CRAFT SHOWS, WHETHER THEY WERE RINKY DINK

OUTDOOR SHOWS OR AT THE SMITHSONIAN,

PEOPLE WERE LIKE, "OH, MY GOD, YOU MADE THIS?"

AND THAT'’S PART OF IT.

I COULDN'’T WAIT TO GET BACK TO THE SHOP AND CREATE.

I LOVE THAT ASPECT OF IT.

MAN: WE TRAVEL TO ALL THE MAJOR CITIES,

PROBABLY ABOUT 10 SHOWS A YEAR.

I MEAN, THAT'’S JUST-- THAT'’S THE FUN OF IT.

YOU KNOW, THE BEST PART IS GOING AND SELLING,

TALKING TO THE PEOPLE.

COMING HOME AND MAKING IT IS A WHOLE OTHER THING.

CROSS: OH, THE COLOR'’S COMING OUT REALLY NICE.

HEINEL: AND YOU KNOW HOW CALIFORNIA IS A GREAT PLACE

TO HAVE YOUR STUDIO AND WORK ON, YOU KNOW, AN ART AND CRAFT.

CROSS: I'’VE BEEN WORKING WITH ROSA MARTINEZ

FOR ALMOST 30 YEARS,

AND SHE IS AMAZING.

WHEN WE WORK TOGETHER, WE LOOK AT THE PIECE,

I SAY, "ROSA, YOU KNOW WHAT, I'’D LIKE THE COLLAR

TO BE HIGHER OR MORE"-- "OH, OK."

WE'’RE JUST ON THE SAME PAGE.

OH, GREAT. YOU KNOW, I REALLY LIKE

DOING THE SEAMS ON THE OUTSIDE.

THAT REALLY WORKED OUT.

MARTINEZ: WE READ OUR MINDS. [LAUGHS]

SHE MARKS THE FABRICS AND I DO THE CUTTINGS.

IN MEXICO I WENT TO THE PATTERN SCHOOL

AND SEWING SCHOOL.

I LOVE MY WORK. IT'’S MY PASSION.

LEVENTON: PART OF THE REASON WEARABLE ART

HAS BEEN SUCH A QUINTESSENTIALLY CALIFORNIA FORM

ARE THE PLACES TO STUDY--

UC DAVIS, UC BERKELEY,

CALIFORNIA COLLEGE OF ARTS AND CRAFTS.

MANY OF THE ARTISTS CAME FROM NON-FIBER PROGRAMS

AND SEVERAL OF THE EARLY BAY AREA ARTISTS

STARTED BY PAINTING ON FABRIC.

BENNETT: FRIENDS SAID, "SYLVIA YOU DON'’T WEAR CLOTHES,

YOU WEAR PIECES."

WHICH IS TRUE.

I'’VE ALWAYS REFERRED TO THIS WORK AS PIECES,

NOT JACKET, VEST, WHATEVER.

LEVENTON: K. LEE MANUEL WORKED PRIMARILY

WITH FEATHERS AND PAINTED LEATHER.

THIS COLLAR IS VERY WEARABLE.

IT JUST FOLDS OVER THE SHOULDERS,

TIES IN BACK,

AND FORMS TO THE BODY.

JEAN CACICEDO'’S RAIN COAT,

IT'’S A FELTED COAT.

THE WORDS "RAIN" ARE PUNCHED INTO THE COAT.

AND THE COAT ITSELF IS SLASHED FULL OF LITTLE RAINDROPS.

IT'’S A RAIN COAT THAT IS A RAIN SHOWER,

BUT IT'’S FULL OF HOLES.

YOU ARE NEVER EVER EVER GOING TO BE ABLE

TO KEEP THE WATER OFF YOU.

KAISIK WONG GREW UP IN THE BAY AREA.

HE WENT TO PACIFIC BASIN COLLEGE OF FASHION.

AND KAISIK WAS INVOLVED IN THE AVANT-GARDE UNDERGROUND WORLD

IN SAN FRANCISCO.

HE LOVED ETHNIC FABRICS--

GUATEMALAN IKAT AND CHINESE BROCADE

AND LAMEÉ. HE LOVED LAMEÉ.

KAISIK WAS DOING SOMETHING VERY INDIVIDUAL.

IN 2002, BALENCIAGA SENT A VEST DOWN THE RUNWAY,

AND IT WAS A DEAD RINGER FOR A VEST

THAT KAISIK HAD DESIGNED IN 1974.

KNOX BENNETT: YOU CAN'’T COPYRIGHT ANY OF THIS STUFF.

BENNETT: IF YOU HAVE THE TALENT,

YOU REINVENT AND MOVE ON.

YOU DON'’T--YOU KNOW, YOU CAN'’T PROTECT ANYTHING.

PEOPLE WERE SO CREATIVE.

THERE WERE SOME JUST FABULOUS PIECES OF WORK

THAT WERE SO INVENTIVE.

AND AS CLOTHING,

THEY WEREN'’T ALWAYS THE MOST COMFORTABLE THINGS TO WEAR.

YOU FELT LIKE A WALKING SCULPTURE.

LEVENTON: YOU NEED A CERTAIN CONFIDENCE

TO CARRY OFF A MAJOR PIECE OF CLOTHING

SO THAT YOU ARE WEARING IT

INSTEAD OF HAVING IT WEAR YOU.

BENNETT: THIS IS JANET LIPKIN.

IT'’S A SWEATER SLASH JACKET.

THE ELEMENTS ARE FLOWER SHAPES, PETALS.

THE COLLAR WILL GO UP INTO A FULL SORT OF BLOSSOM EFFECT

AROUND THE FACE.

IT'’S A REALLY NICE EXAMPLE OF HER FREEFORM CROCHET.

I USED TO WEAR IT ALL THE TIME BACK IN NEW YORK,

BUT I COULDN'’T GO HALF A BLOCK WITHOUT BEING STOPPED

BY PEOPLE--"WHAT IS IT? WHO MADE IT?

HOW DID YOU GET IT?"

AND ON AND ON AND ON.

IT FINALLY GOT TO THE POINT WHERE--

I'’M SERIOUS, I COULD NOT WEAR IT

IF I WERE IN A HURRY OR THAT.

I HAD TO JUST LEAVE IT AT THE HOTEL.

THAT WAS CALIFORNIA.

THAT WAS THE IMPACT IT HAD.

I MEAN THAT REALLY WAS CALIFORNIA INFLUENCE.

KNOX BENNETT: YEAH.

CROSS: WHEN I DECIDED TO MAKE THE TRANSITION

FROM WEAVING MYSELF TO BUYING THE FABRIC,

JUST OPENED A WHOLE WORLD FOR ME.

I COULD TAKE SOME OF THE COLOR OUT

AND OVERDYE IT,

EMBELLISH IT, DO MY APPLIQUEÉS ON IT.

I CAN AIRBRUSH OUT A COLOR I DON'’T LIKE.

IT'’S JUST ENDLESS WHAT I CAN DO.

IT'’S LIKE I HAVE THIS CANVAS IN FRONT OF ME,

BUT IT'’S A GARMENT.

LIVING IN CALIFORNIA,

THE WHOLE WEARABLE ART MOVEMENT WAS HAPPENING,

AND IT WAS SO EXCITING TO SEE ALL THESE ARTISTS,

BUT IT WAS CONCEPTUAL CLOTHING.

AND I KNEW I DIDN'’T WANT TO DO CONCEPTUAL CLOTHING,

BUT THAT WAS AN INFLUENCE,

THAT WORLD OF CONCEPTUAL, WEARABLE ART.

I'’M MORE WEARABLE DESIGN.

THEY'’RE WEARABLE ART.

LEVENTON: I'’M NOT SURE I AGREE WITH HER,

ALTHOUGH THERE IS NOT NECESSARILY OVERT CONTENT

IN DEBORAH CROSS'’ WORK.

THERE HAVE ALWAYS BEEN PEOPLE IN THIS MOVEMENT

WHO CONCENTRATED ON MAKING BEAUTIFUL CLOTHES.

AND SO TO BE CALLED WEARABLE ART

FOR JUST SHEER PHYSICAL, AESTHETIC BEAUTY,

I THINK THAT'’S PERFECTLY LEGITIMATE.

LEVENTON: CALIFORNIA, I THINK,

HAD THE IDEAS OF DESIGN.

THE ARTISTS IN CALIFORNIA,

THEY WERE DIFFERENT.

IT DID LOOK DIFFERENT.

THERE'’S SOMETHING IN CALIFORNIA MENTALLY THAT'’S JUST

MORE FREEING.

IT REALLY IS A CREATIVE STATE.

[WOMAN VOCALIZING]

ANNOUNCER: COMING UP NEXT ON "CRAFT IN AMERICA"...

WOMAN: I LOVE VISIONARIES

BECAUSE THEY TAKE US FORWARD.

MAN: WE ALL WAKE UP IN THE MORNING

AND WE HAVE ONE IDEA, TWO.

HE WAKES UP WITH 16.

SECOND WOMAN: YOU CAN ONLY FOLLOW RULES TO A CERTAIN POINT.

WHERE THE ART COMES IN IS THE UNKNOWNS.

SECOND MAN: WHAT'’S MY FAVORITE PIECE?

IT'’S THE NEXT ONE, OF COURSE.

[LAUGHS]

♪ CALIFORNIA ♪

♪ YOU'’RE THE GREATEST STATE ♪

♪ OF ALL ♪

♪ OOH ♪

CAPTIONING MADE POSSIBLE BY CRAFT IN AMERICA, INC.

CAPTIONED BY THE NATIONAL CAPTIONING INSTITUTE --www.ncicap.org--

♪ OOH ♪

ANNOUNCER: WATCH ADDITIONAL VIDEO ONLINE,

INCLUDING MORE INTERVIEWS AND ARTISTS AT WORK,

PLUS VIRTUAL EXHIBITIONS, EDUCATION GUIDES,

AND INFORMATION ON AMERICA'’S LEADING ARTISTS.

VISIT "CRAFT IN AMERICA" AT PBS.ORG.

THIS EPISODE OF "CRAFT IN AMERICA"

IS AVAILABLE ON AMAZON PRIME VIDEO.

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