Artbound

S10 E2 | FULL EPISODE

Heath Ceramics: The Making of a California Classic

"Artbound" looks at the dinnerware of Heath Ceramics and a design that has stood the test of time since the company began in the late 1940’s. Through the writings of Edith Heath, the founder and designer of Heath Ceramics and voiced by renowned chef Nancy Silverton, this episode explores the groundbreaking work of a woman who created a classic of American design.

AIRED: May 24, 2019 | 0:54:58
ABOUT THE PROGRAM
TRANSCRIPT

STEVE CABELLA: EDITH'S DESIGN,

THE COUPE DINNERWARE, IT'S

AMERICAN CLASSIC, FOR SURE, BUT

IT'S A LANDMARK DESIGN. SO IT'S

PART OF THE FOUNDATION OF

MODERN DESIGN. IT IS LITERALLY

TIMELESS. IT'S STRONG. IT'S

STURDY. SHE BUILT ALL THIS INTO

IT. IT'S MEANT TO BE USED.

SOMEBODY HAS TO BE THE

FOUNDATION FOR GOOD DESIGN AND

DINNERWARE, AND WHO BETTER THAN

EDITH HEATH REALLY?

WOMAN AS HEATH: I WANTED TO

MAKE SOMETHING THAT WAS FOR THE

AMERICAN WAY OF LIFE, NOT THE

KIND OF DISHES THAT WERE USED

IN EUROPE AMONG THE ARISTOCRACY

BUT MUCH MORE PEASANT-ORIENTED,

YET IT COULD BE FOR SUNDAY

BEST, AS WELL AS EVERYDAY USE.

[MAN VOCALIZING]

ANNOUNCER: THIS PROGRAM WAS

MADE POSSIBLE IN PART BY A

GRANT FROM ANNE RAY FOUNDATION,

A MARGARET A. CARGILL

PHILANTHROPY; THE

LOS ANGELES COUNTY BOARD OF

SUPERVISORS THROUGH THE

LOS ANGELES COUNTY ARTS

COMMISSION; THE LOS ANGELES

DEPARTMENT OF CULTURAL AFFAIRS;

THE CALIFORNIA HUMANITIES; AND

THE CALIFORNIA ARTS COUNCIL.

ROSA NOVAK: I THINK THERE'S SO

MUCH TO LEARN FROM PEOPLE LIKE

EDITH HEATH. I THINK SHE WAS A

TECHNICAL GENIUS.

WINNIE CRITTENDON: SHE WAS

REALLY CLEAR ABOUT WHAT SHE

LIKED AND WHAT SHE DIDN'T LIKE.

IF SHE HAD AN IDEA OF

SOMETHING, IT WOULD BE A ROUGH

GO TO TALK HER OUT OF IT. SHE

WAS STUBBORN AS ANYTHING.

JON BROODER: SHE WAS THE MOST

CREATIVE PERSON I'VE EVER KNOWN.

TUNG CHIANG: FOR ME, I WOULD

DESCRIBE HER AS AN EXPLORER,

ALWAYS PUSHING HER BOUNDARY.

SHE WANT TO TRY SOMETHING. SHE

WANT TO KEEP EXPLORING.

RENE DE GUZMAN: EDITH HEATH

REALLY MATTERS. SHE WAS REALLY

A TRAILBLAZER, BUT WE HAVEN'T

REALLY TOLD HER STORY YET.

ROBIN PETRAVIC: WHEN WE FIRST

TOOK OVER HEATH IN 2003, WE

WERE VERY CONSCIOUS OF LEARNING

ALL THE PROCESSES IN THE

FACTORY AND UNDERSTANDING THE

REASONS BEHIND THEM BECAUSE IT

ALL EFFECTS HOW THE FINAL

PRODUCT COMES OUT. MY FAVORITE

TIME IN THE FACTORY IS WHEN I

GET THERE EARLY IN THE MORNING

A LITTLE BIT AFTER THE CREW HAS

GOTTEN THERE, AND IT'S EXCITING

BECAUSE THAT'S WHEN WE OPEN THE

KILNS. IT'S LIKE CHRISTMAS

EVERY DAY. IT'S SOMETHING THAT

GIVES EVERYBODY JOY BECAUSE THEY

WANT TO SEE WHAT HAPPENED TO THE

PIECES THEY GLAZED YESTERDAY.

DID THEY COME OUT RIGHT? THE

FIRING IS WHAT GIVES BIRTH TO

ALL OF THESE BEAUTIFUL PIECES.

CATHERINE BAILEY: I DON'T KNOW

IF EDITH WAS AHEAD OF HER TIME,

BUT SHE WAS VERY INTENTIONAL

ABOUT WHAT SHE SET OUT TO DO. I

MEAN, SHE DESIGNED THE CLAY

THAT WE USE TODAY, AND THAT

CLAY WAS AN INTEGRAL FOUNDATION

TO EVERYTHING THAT CAME

AFTERWARDS. THE OTHER FAMOUS

DESIGNERS WERE USING SOMEONE

ELSE'S AND JUST, YOU KNOW,

GIVING THE SHAPE FORM OR COLOR.

TO EDITH HEATH, THE SCIENCE WAS

JUST AS IMPORTANT AS THE ART.

NOVAK: EDITH GREW UP ON THIS

FARM IN IOWA WITH A LOT OF

OTHER SIBLINGS, WHO SHE'S

OFTEN TAKING CARE OF AND DOING

A LOT OF FARM WORK.

WOMAN AS HEATH: MY MOTHER

DIDN'T FEEL THAT IT WAS

IMPORTANT FOR GIRLS TO GO TO

SCHOOL. I THINK HER RELUCTANCE

OF HAVING ME GO TO SCHOOL IS

THAT I WASN'T AROUND THEN TO BE

AS MUCH HELP.

NOVAK: HER PARENTS WERE DANISH

IMMIGRANTS. HER MATERNAL

GRANDFATHER WAS A REALLY

FERVENT SOCIALIST BACK IN

DENMARK, AND HER MOTHER HAD

KIND OF CARRIED THAT PHILOSOPHY

TO THE UNITED STATES AND WAS,

IN EDITH'S TELLING OF IT, OFTEN

KIND OF RESENTFUL OF LIVING IN

THE U.S. AND HAVING THIS FARM

LIFE THERE.

AMOS KLAUSNER: ONE GOOD THING

WAS THAT HER FATHER REALLY

WANTED ALL OF THE KIDS TO GO TO

SCHOOL. THAT WAS A BIG THING

FOR YOUNG WOMEN LIVING ON THE

FARM IN RURAL AMERICA, BUT

UNFORTUNATELY, WHEN WE STARTED

MOVING INTO THE DEPRESSION IN

1928 AND 1929, THE FAMILY LOST

THE FARM, AND EDITH RECALLS THE

AUCTION THAT TOOK PLACE.

JENNIFER VOLLAND: THEY HAD TO

BASICALLY SELL OFF ALL THEIR

BELONGINGS, SO THE ONLY THING

THAT WAS LEFT WERE A TABLE, A

FEW CHAIRS, SOME BEDS, AND THEN

A PIANO AND THE HAVILAND CHINA,

AND THE LATTER TWO DIDN'T SELL

BECAUSE NO ONE COULD AFFORD

THOSE ITEMS AT THE TIME, SO IT

DID HAVE A LASTING IMPACT ON

EDITH IN THAT SHE SAW THAT THE

HAVILAND CHINA WAS ESSENTIALLY

LIKE A USELESS OBJECT, LIKE,

JUST THERE FOR AN AESTHETIC

VALUE.

JULIE MUNIZ: THIS WAS VALUED IN

HER FAMILY. IT WAS PASSED DOWN,

AND IT WAS CONSIDERED AN

HEIRLOOM, AND SHE SAW IT AS

SOMETHING THAT WAS KIND OF

REVERED AND ONLY USED ON

SPECIAL OCCASIONS, AND SHE

DIDN'T UNDERSTAND WHY YOU HAVE

A CHINA THAT YOU ONLY USED,

LIKE, ONCE A YEAR. THE HAVILAND

CHINA IS ACTUALLY MADE OUT OF

PORCELAIN, AND IT'S VERY

DELICATE, AND EDITH DIDN'T WANT

TO MAKE JUST DELICATE PIECES.

SHE WANTED TO MAKE

DURABLE PIECES.

PETRAVIC: OUR CLAY BODY, WHICH

IS HEATH'S ORIGINAL CLAY BODY,

STILL COMES FROM A CLAY PIT

OUTSIDE OF SACRAMENTO,

CALIFORNIA. YOU CAN'T GET

CLOSER TO BEING A CALIFORNIA

PRODUCT THAN BEING MADE OUT OF

THE STATE'S EARTH.

WOMAN AS HEATH: CERAMICS IS ONE

OF THE OLDEST TRADES IN THE

WORLD, DICTATING THE LOCATION

AND DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIETIES

THROUGHOUT HISTORY. CLAY WAS

FIRST FORMED INTO OBJECTS FROM

FIGURES TO FUNCTIONAL VESSELS,

AND OUR HISTORY CAN BE TRACED

THROUGH THIS MEDIUM.

BAILEY: FOR 70 YEARS, THIS CLAY

PIT HAS BEEN THE FOUNDATION OF

HEATH CERAMICS. IT IS WHERE

EDITH STARTED. IT'S THE SEED OF

HER WHOLE LIFE'S WORK. IT'S

EXCITING TO BE WALKING IN HER

FOOTSTEPS AND SEEING WHAT SHE

SAW AT THE BEGINNING.

PETRAVIC: IT'S INCREDIBLY PURE.

BAILEY: THE THING THAT'S

INTERESTING ABOUT CERAMICS IS

YOU'RE TAKING CLAY OF THE

EARTH, AND YOU'RE USING YOUR

HANDS TO GIVE IT FORM, AND

YOU'RE CONNECTING WITH EARTH.

THERE'S A PURENESS TO IT, AND

THERE'S A DIRECT CONNECTION

THAT YOU DON'T HAVE IN OTHER

MEDIUMS.

WOMAN AS HEATH: "IN THE

BEGINNING..." THIS IS A VERY

GOOD WAY TO START A BOOK

BECAUSE IT MAKES ONE TRY TO

IMAGINE WHAT WAS. THE EARTH WAS

A RED-HOT MOLTEN MASS OF

CHEMICALS AND MINERALS BUBBLING.

VOLLAND: EDITH WAS A PROLIFIC

WRITER, AND IT'S INTERESTING TO

SEE THAT THROUGHOUT HER LIFE

SHE TOOK NOTES ON HER

RELATIONSHIP WITH CLAY. WHEN

I'M GOING THROUGH THE ARCHIVES

AND LOOKING AT ALL OF THESE

VARIOUS NOTES AND LETTERS THAT

SHE'S WRITTEN, I REALLY GET A

SENSE THAT I'M INSIDE OF

EDITH'S MIND. SHE ALWAYS WANTED

TO EDUCATE PEOPLE, SO IT'S HER

TRYING TO GET HER STORY OUT AND

HER TRYING TO TALK THROUGH

PROCESSES AND WHAT SHE FELT

WAS IMPORTANT. IT'S LIKE THE

PHILOSOPHICAL UNDERPINNINGS OF

HER WORK. ONE OF THE THINGS THAT

THE BANKRUPTCY TAUGHT HER

WAS THAT SHE WANTED TO BASICALLY

BE ON HER OWN AND NOT RELY

ON ANYONE ELSE AND BECOME

INDEPENDENT. SHE SAVED UP ENOUGH

MONEY TO GO TO THE CHICAGO

TEACHERS COLLEGE, WHERE SHE WAS

EXPOSED TO VARIOUS ART CLASSES

AND REALLY FOUND HER LOVE FOR

ART, AND THEN SHE WENT TO

THE CHICAGO ART INSTITUTE.

FILM NARRATOR: MEN ARE GOING TO

WORK FOR THE GOVERNMENT BY THE

MILLIONS ON NEW BUILDINGS,

ROADS, SCHOOLS, BRIDGES,

ANYTHING TO GET "THE FORGOTTEN

MAN," AS ROOSEVELT CALLS HIM,

OFF THE BREAD LINES AND ON THE

JOB, ANY JOB. WPA. IT STANDS

FOR WORKS PROGRESS

ADMINISTRATION.

NOVAK: EDITH WAS REALLY

INVOLVED IN WPA PROGRAMMING,

AND DURING THAT TIME, SHE

WORKED AT THE LEADERS TRAINING

SCHOOL IN CHICAGO, AND SHE ALSO

WAS WORKING AT A TRAINING CAMP

IN BATAVIA, ILLINOIS, WHERE

THESE GROUPS FROM THE LEADERS

TRAINING SCHOOL WOULD TRAVEL

FOR A WEEK AT A TIME AND

RECEIVE THIS KIND OF

EXPERIENTIAL EDUCATION OUT ON

THE LAND. EDITH HAD THIS PRETTY

AMAZING OPPORTUNITY TO WORK AT

THE BATAVIA SCHOOL AND JOINED

FORCES WITH HOLGER CAHILL, WHO

WAS ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF THE

FEDERAL ART PROJECT, AS WELL AS

LASZLO MOHOLY-NAGY, WHO

STARTED THE NEW BAUHAUS

IN CHICAGO AND CAME FROM

THE BAUHAUS IN GERMANY.

DE GUZMAN: THE BAUHAUS

MOVEMENT, IT WAS

ANTI-SPECIALIZATION. ARTISTS

MIXED IN WITH DESIGNERS, WITH

DANCERS, THIS IDEA THAT

CREATIVITY HAS NO BOUNDS.

SCIENCE WAS ALSO RESPECTED.

VOLLAND: SO THERE WERE ALL

THESE PEOPLE IN THESE DIFFERENT

CREATIVE DISCIPLINES THAT CAME

TOGETHER AND SORT OF SHARED

IDEAS, AND THIS HAD A HUGE

IMPACT ON HER. THERE WAS THIS

SORT OF DEMOCRATIZATION WITHIN

THIS CREATIVE ENVIRONMENT.

WOMAN AS HEATH: THE DEPRESSION

YEARS OF THE THIRTIES WERE

PROBABLY THE MOST IMPORTANT,

SATISFYING YEARS OF MY LIFE.

THEY SUSTAIN ME WHEN

EVERYTHING'S A ROUGH. IN THE

MIDST OF HUNGER AND STARVATION,

A CULTURAL AWAKENING TOOK PLACE

THAT CHANGED THE ECONOMY AND

BROUGHT HOPE FOR A MORE HUMAN

ENVIRONMENT.

KLAUSNER: THERE WAS A GUY NAMED

BRIAN HEATH, WHO WAS THE CAMP

DIRECTOR. BRIAN WAS STUDYING TO

BECOME A SOCIAL WORKER. EDITH

AND BRIAN WERE ACTUALLY QUITE

DIFFERENT. HE HAD A WEALTH OF

EXPERIENCES THAT SHE NEVER HAD.

BRIAN FOUND SOMETHING IN HER HE

HADN'T EXPERIENCED GROWING UP,

AND SO TOGETHER, THEY MADE FOR

A VERY GOOD PAIR.

WOMAN AS HEATH: WE MET THERE IN

EARLY OF MAY 1938. WE WERE

MARRIED 3 MONTHS LATER.

KLAUSNER: AFTER THEY GOT

MARRIED, BRIAN TOOK A JOB WITH

THE AMERICAN RED CROSS IN SAN

FRANCISCO. WHEN THEY ARRIVED IN

SAN FRANCISCO, EDITH TOOK A JOB

AS AN ART TEACHER AT THE

PRESIDIO HILL SCHOOL AND

STARTED AUDITING CLASSES AT THE

ART INSTITUTE.

VOLLAND: WHEN SHE MOVED TO SAN

FRANCISCO, SHE PARTIALLY PICKED

THE JULIA MORGAN APARTMENT ON

FILBERT STREET BECAUSE IT WAS

IN TWO BLOCKS OF THE SAN

FRANCISCO ART INSTITUTE. IT

SEEMS THAT WHEN SHE WAS AT THE

CHICAGO ART INSTITUTE SHE GOT

MORE INTO PAINTING, BUT THE

THING THAT WAS WRONG WITH

PAINTING FOR HER IS THAT IT

DIDN'T APPEAL TO HER USEFUL OR

PRACTICAL SIDE.

WOMAN AS HEATH: PAINTING IS SO

EASY. YOU CAN SEE WHAT YOU'RE

DOING. IN CERAMICS, YOU CAN'T

SEE THE COLOR IT'S GOING TO BE

UNTIL IT'S BEEN THROUGH THE

FIRE, SO YOU'RE ALWAYS WORKING

FROM A MEMORY OF WHAT IT SHOULD

OR COULD LOOK LIKE, BUT IT'S SO

INFINITE. THERE'S NO END TO

WHERE IT CAN GO.

VOLLAND: THE CLAY WAS REALLY

THE MEDIUM THAT SHE FELT MOST

COMFORTABLE WITH BECAUSE IT HAD

A CERTAIN MALLEABILITY. SHE

COULD CONTROL IT A LITTLE, BUT

ALSO, I THINK, IT GAVE HER

SOMETHING THAT SHE COULD

EXPERIMENT WITH OVER TIME, BUT

THE PROBLEM THERE WAS THAT

THERE WERE MORE PEOPLE IN THE

CLASS THAN POTTER'S WHEELS, AND

SO THAT WAS WHEN BRIAN MADE A

POTTER'S WHEEL FOR HER OUT OF A

SEWING MACHINE.

NOVAK: SO EDITH BEGAN MAKING

POTTERY IN HER KITCHEN. SHE HAD

A TEST KILN IN THE KITCHEN AND

CLAYS MATERIALS IN THE

PANTRY AND A GLASS KILN IN THE

LAUNDRY ROOM.

MUNIZ: ONE OF THE IMPORTANT

THINGS TO REALIZE IS THAT EDITH

WAS TALENTED WITH CERAMICS FROM

THE VERY BEGINNING. IF ANYBODY

HAS EVER THROWN A POT, YOU CAN

SIT THERE AT THE WHEEL, AND IT

EITHER COMES VERY NATURALLY TO

YOU TO CENTER THAT CLAY AND TO

RAISE THAT POT UP, OR YOU'RE

GOING TO STRUGGLE WITH IT, AND

EDITH WAS VERY--IT WAS A VERY

NATURAL THING FOR HER TO DO.

CHIANG: CERAMICS IS A THOUSAND

YEARS OF TRADITION, AND THE

PROCESS THAT I'M MAKING IS

ALMOST ZERO DIFFERENCE THAN

EDITH. AS I START WORKING WITH

CLAY WITH MY HAND, WHAT I FIND

OUT IS THAT IT'S VERY TACTILE.

YOUR MIND HAS A VISION, BUT

IT'S ABOUT THE BODY OF THE CLAY

AND YOUR HAND MAKING IT.

SOMETIMES THEY ALIGN, SOMETIMES

THEY'RE NOT. I MIGHT HAVE A

VERY PRECISE IDEA OF WHAT I

WANT TO DO, BUT AT THE END OF

THE DAY, I WILL JUST FOLLOW

MY HAND AND SEE HOW THE CLAY

WORKS. SO IT'S KIND OF LIKE

A COLLABORATION BETWEEN MY

THOUGHTS AND THE WHEEL.

PETRAVIC: I NEVER GET TIRED OF

WATCHING THE PROCESS. A

FORMLESS LUMP OF CLAY BECOMES

THIS BEAUTIFUL FORM, BE IT A

PLATE OR A BOWL. IT'S ALWAYS A

BEAUTIFUL PROCESS TO SEE THAT

TRANSFORMATION.

WOMAN AS HEATH: IN OUR ART

HISTORY CLASSES, WE HAD STUDIED

CLAYS AND THE VESSELS COMING

FROM AROUND THE WORLD. EVERY

CIVILIZATION ALWAYS HAD THINGS

MADE OUT OF CLAY.

NOVAK: SHE ALSO REALLY

EMPHASIZED THE IDEA THAT CLAY

IS ALL OVER THE WORLD AND CHEAP

AND AFFORDABLE AND SHOULD BE

USED TO MAKE AN AFFORDABLE LIFE.

KLAUSNER: EDITH PRIMARILY HAD

ACCESS TO PREMIXED CLAYS, AND

THOSE CLAYS DIDN'T MEET HER

NEEDS. SHE FOUND THEM TO BE

WHAT SHE CALLED GUTLESS.

NOVAK: CLAYS ARE MINED AND THEN

MIXED TOGETHER IN ORDER TO

CREATE A CLAY BODY. EVERY CLAY

BODY HAS ITS OWN

CHARACTERISTICS. I BELIEVE

EDITH WAS LOOKING FOR A CLAY

BODY THAT REALLY HELD WHAT

CALIFORNIA LAND WAS FOR HER

WITHIN ITS AESTHETIC QUALITY.

WOMAN AS HEATH: THE MOST

IMPORTANT THING IN CERAMICS IS

WHERE THE CLAY AND THE

MATERIALS COME FROM BECAUSE THE

DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIETIES IN

EVERY PERIOD IN HISTORY WAS

INFLUENCED BY THE LOCATION AND

KIND OF CLAY DEPOSITS AROUND

THE WORLD. BRIAN AND I SPENT

WEEKENDS DRIVING TO WHEREVER WE

HEARD THERE WAS A CLAY PIT. I

WAS LOOKING FOR CLAY WHEN I

BEGAN POTTING THAT NOBODY KNEW

ANYTHING ABOUT, THAT HAD UNIQUE

PROPERTIES, THAT I COULD UTILIZE

AND DEVELOP, THAT WOULD BE

EXPRESSIVE OF THE REGION,

THAT WOULD THEN TURN OUT TO

LOOK LIKE SOMETHING THAT NOBODY

ELSE HAD EVER MADE.

NOVAK: SHE WAS TRAVELING TO ALL

OF THESE CLOSED DOWN BRICK

YARDS AND CLAY PITS BECAUSE OF

THE WAR AND TAKING CLAY, JUST

LIKE CLAMBERING DOWN INTO THE

CLAY PITS AND STEALING CLAY

WITH A BUCKET AND BRINGING IT

BACK TO HER KITCHEN STUDIO AND

TESTING THESE RAW MATERIALS.

KLAUSNER: AND THIS LED TO AN

EXPLOSION OF INNOVATION, AND

SHE RAN THROUGH THOUSANDS OF

CLAY AND GLAZE TESTS. SHE WAS

TESTING THE PLASTICITY OF THE

CLAY. SHE WAS TESTING ITS

SHRINKAGE AND A VARIETY OF

OTHER TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS.

THEIR TRAVELS LED THEM TO A

SMALL TOWN CALLED LINCOLN,

WHICH IS JUST OUTSIDE OF

SACRAMENTO. IN LINCOLN, THEY

FOUND A GREAT INLAND SEA HAD

DEPOSITED SOME REALLY WONDERFUL

CLAY THAT SHE FELT WAS

INDICATIVE OF THE LANDSCAPE

AND OF NORTHERN CALIFORNIA.

IT INFORMED THE STYLE OF HER

WARE, AND IT MADE HEATH HEATH.

BAILEY: EDITH HEATH WAS LOOKING

FOR THE CLAY THAT REFLECTED THE

WAY CALIFORNIA FELT TO HER AND

THE WAY THAT PEOPLE LIVED.

PETRAVIC: THAT CLAY COMES INTO

HEATH IN A POWDERED FORM. IT'S

MIXED WITH OTHER CLAYS FROM

ELSEWHERE AND OTHER DIFFERENT

MATERIALS THAT GIVE IT ITS

DIFFERENT CHARACTERISTICS

AROUND HOW IT'S GOING TO MELT

AND HOW IT'S GOING TO HOLD

TOGETHER, HOW IT TAKES THE

GLAZE. THAT'S WHAT MAKES UP A

CLAY BODY AND THE FORMULA.

THAT CLAY IS THEN MIXED WITH

WATER, AND THEN IT GOES UNDER

PRESSURE TO SOMETHING CALLED A

FILTER PRESS, AND THEN THE

EXCESS WATER WILL DRAIN OUT OF

THAT FILTER PRESS.

NOVAK: SO THE CLAY BODY THAT

EDITH ULTIMATELY LANDED ON AND

WAS REALLY PROUD OF WAS

QUINTESSENTIAL TO STONEWARE. IN

HER WRITING, SHE PUTS THIS

EMPHASIS ON STONEWARE OVER

PORCELAIN AND STONEWARE OVER

EARTHENWARE. IT'S STRONG. IT'S

DURABLE. A LOT OF THE

INSTIGATION OF HER MATERIAL

INVESTIGATION CAME OUT OF THIS

CONCEPT OF EUTECTICS WHICH SHE

WAS TAUGHT AT THE UC EXTENSION

IN 1942.

VOLLAND: EDITH PETITIONED THE

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA TO DO

A COURSE ON CERAMICS CHEMISTRY

BECAUSE SHE WAS INTERESTED IN

THE SCIENCE BEHIND MAKING

CERAMICS.

WINNIE CRITTENDON: SHE WANTED

TO FIRE AT THE LOWEST

TEMPERATURE POSSIBLE. ONE OF

THE WAYS THAT SHE DID THAT WAS

BY USING A EUTECTIC IN THE CLAY

BODY, AND THE EUTECTIC IS WHEN

YOU HAVE TWO INGREDIENTS WHICH

WHEN MIXED TOGETHER MELT AT A

LOWER TEMPERATURE THAN EITHER

OF THEM WOULD MELT BY

THEMSELVES. SHE DID NOT WANT TO

BE CONCOCTING DESIGN. SHE

WANTED THE MATERIALS TO MAKE

THE DESIGN, BE THE DESIGN.

NOVAK: CLAY WAS ALWAYS AT THE

HEART OF HER WARE. SHE WORKED

VERY HARD TO CREATE THIS CLAY

BODY THAT SHE KIND OF FELL IN

LOVE WITH.

MUNIZ: EDITH WAS VERY LUCKY IN

THE SENSE THAT SHE WAS OFFERED

A SHOW REALLY EARLY ON IN HER

CAREER AT THE LEGION OF HONOR

IN SAN FRANCISCO. THE LEGION OF

HONOR IS OBVIOUSLY A VERY

PRESTIGIOUS MUSEUM EVEN BACK IN

THE MID-FORTIES WHEN SHE

SHOWED. THERE WERE PLATES,

VASES, TEA SERVICES IN A

VARIETY OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF

GLAZES, AND IT WAS THAT SHOW

THAT REALLY HELPED HER

ESTABLISH, I THINK, WHAT SHE

WANTED HER LINE TO BE EVEN

BEFORE SHE KNEW THERE WAS

GOING TO BE A LINE.

KLAUSNER: AT THE OPENING OF THE

EXHIBITION, EDITH MET BILL

BREWER, A BUYER FOR GUMP'S, ONE

OF THE GREAT SAN FRANCISCO

STORES. IT WAS A REAL TASTE

MAKER. AS SOON AS BILL SAW THE

WORK, HE CONSIGNED THE ENTIRE

COLLECTION SO THAT HE COULD

SELL IT AT GUMP'S. BILL ALSO

OFFERED EDITH A UNIQUE

OPPORTUNITY. GUMP'S HAD A SMALL

CERAMICS FACTORY IN CHINATOWN.

VOLLAND: SO THEY OFFERED HER A

STUDIO FOR $50 A MONTH ON CLAY

STREET AND THAT THEY WOULD HAVE

FIRST RIGHT OF REFUSAL FOR

WHATEVER PRODUCTS OR DINNERWARE

SHE WAS MAKING.

MUNIZ: IT'S JUST PURE MATERIAL.

IT'S CLAY, AND IT'S GLAZE, AND

THEN ALL OF THE COLOR IS COMING

FROM THE NATURAL ELEMENTS IN

THE CLAY AND THE GLAZE, SO

THAT'S WHAT MADE THE HEATH LINE

VERY UNIQUE.

KLAUSNER: AS THE WAR WOUND

DOWN, SO DID THE NEED FOR

SERVICES PROVIDED BY THE

AMERICAN RED CROSS, AND BRIAN

DECIDED THAT HE WOULD JOIN THEM

AS KIND OF MANAGER OF THE

STUDIO.

VOLLAND: HE WAS BUILDING

MACHINES THAT FACILITATED THE

INCREASE IN PRODUCTION. I MEAN,

I THINK SHE WAS OPEN-MINDED

ABOUT THE IDEA OF SWITCHING TO

MECHANICAL REPRODUCTION, AND I

THINK SHE WAS INFLUENCED BY THE

BAUHAUS PRINCIPLES AND THE IDEA

THAT YOU COULD STILL CREATE

GOOD DESIGN EVEN IF YOU'RE

MAKING MANY OF THOSE PRODUCTS,

AND SHE STILL ALWAYS USED THE

POTTER'S WHEEL TO CREATE

PROTOTYPES, SO SHE DIDN'T

BELIEVE THAT JUST BECAUSE,

YOU KNOW, THEY WERE USING

MACHINES FOR A CERTAIN PART

OF PRODUCTION--YOU STILL

HAD TO COME UP WITH THOSE

IDEAS IN YOUR MIND.

WOMAN AS HEATH: GOOD DESIGN

DOESN'T DEPEND ON WHETHER

SOMETHING IS MADE BY HAND. IN

FACT, THERE ARE SOME VERY JUNKY

THINGS THAT CAN BE MADE BY

HAND. THE IDEA OF MAKING THINGS

ON A POTTER'S WHEEL IN AN

INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY REALLY

WAS AN ANACHRONISM AS FAR AS

I WAS CONCERNED.

IT WAS OK WHILE I WAS LEARNING

AND GETTING A FEEL FOR THE

CLAY, BUT AFTER ALL, A MACHINE

DOESN'T DECIDE WHAT THE SHAPE

IS GOING TO BE. A HUMAN BEING

HAS TO DECIDE THAT, SO I FELT I

WAS IN AS MUCH CONTROL AS EVER.

MUNIZ: THE JIGGER WHEEL WAS

SOMETHING THAT COULD INCREASE

THEIR PRODUCTION. YOU HAVE A

MOLD, AND YOU TAKE YOUR CLAY,

AND YOU PUT IT DOWN ON THE

MOLD, AND IT SPINS, AND THEN

YOU BRING THIS PROFILE DOWN, SO

INSTEAD OF YOUR HANDS BEING

THERE CREATING THE WALLS, YOU

HAVE THIS MACHINE THAT'S DOING

IT FOR YOU.

KLAUSNER: THE TRANSITION FROM

STUDIO POTTER TO INDUSTRIAL

DESIGNER REALLY UPSET A LOT OF

THE STUDIO POTTER ASSOCIATIONS

THAT EDITH HAD INITIALLY BEEN

INVOLVED WITH. YOU HAVE EDITH,

A MEMBER OF THE SAN FRANCISCO

POTTERS ASSOCIATION, TURNING

HER BACK ON HAND-THROWN WARE.

MANY OF THEM SUGGESTED THAT SHE

DROP OUT, AND EVENTUALLY SHE

DID.

MUNIZ: PEOPLE TOLD HER "YOU'RE

SELLING OUT." SHE DIDN'T

BELIEVE THEM. SHE SAID, "NO.

I'M NOT SELLING OUT. I'M TAKING

WHAT WE'RE DOING--I'M TAKING IT

TO ANOTHER LEVEL."

VOLLAND: I THINK MORE THAN

ANYTHING ELSE EDITH WAS AN

ICONOCLAST. EDITH DEFINITELY

WAS NOT A JOINER. I THINK THAT

SHE WAS ASSOCIATED WITH

DIFFERENT POLITICAL OR CREATIVE

GROUPS AT ONE TIME OR ANOTHER,

BUT REALLY, SHE FORGED HER OWN

PATH AND HAD HER OWN IDEAS

ABOUT HOW SHE WANTED TO

APPROACH HER LIFE AND WORK.

MUNIZ: SLIP CASTING IS ANOTHER

WAY TO CREATE A PRODUCT.

BASICALLY, YOU HAVE A MOLD. THE

MOLD'S MADE OUT OF PLASTER, AND

YOU HAVE A SLIP, WHERE THE SLIP

IS BASICALLY A CLAY BODY WITH

WATER ADDED TO IT, SO IT'S

LIQUID.

IT WILL THEN DRY, AND THEN YOU

CAN TAKE IT OUT OF THE MOLD,

AND YOU HAVE THIS CLAY OBJECT

THAT IS IN THE SHAPE OF THE

MOLD.

BAILEY: CLAY AND PLASTER HAVE

AN INTERESTING RELATIONSHIP.

THE REASON YOU'RE USING THE

PLASTER IS IT WILL WICK THE

MOISTURE AWAY FROM THE CLAY IN

THE PIECE THAT'S BEEN FORMED.

THE CLAY SHRINKS, AND IT

NATURALLY WILL COME AWAY FROM

THE MOLD.

AT THAT POINT, YOU HAVE A SOLID

BUT VERY BRITTLE PIECE. YOU

HAVE TO HANDLE IT VERY

CAREFULLY, OR IT WILL CHIP AND

CRACK.

MUNIZ: SHE SAID, "WHY LIMIT

WHAT I'M ABLE TO DO? IF I'M

ABLE TO PRODUCE MORE AND IT

STILL HAS THAT QUALITY, THEN I

CAN LOWER THE PRICES OF IT, AND

GOOD DESIGN CAN BE AFFORDABLE

TO EVERYBODY." THAT'S WHAT SHE

THOUGHT.

NOVAK: SO YOU THINK AT THE TIME

EDITH REALLY FILLED A UNIQUE

ROLE IN THAT SHE DIDN'T FIT

INTO THE STUDIO POTTER MODEL OF

THESE POTTERS MAKING ONE-OFF

PIECES AND GETTING ACCLAIMED

AWARDS FOR THAT BUT NOT REALLY

STEPPING UP THEIR PRODUCTION,

AND SHE ALSO DIDN'T FIT INTO

THE RUSSEL WRIGHT STEUBENVILLE

OR FIESTAWARE MODEL OF MAKING

MASS-PRODUCED CERAMICS THAT

WERE DESIGNED BY SOMEONE AND

MADE BY SOMEONE ELSE ENTIRELY,

AND SO THE FACT THAT SHE WAS THE

DESIGNER AND WAS ALSO IN THE

FACTORY EVERY DAY DID GIVE HER A

REALLY UNIQUE PERSPECTIVE

ON CERAMICS THAT I THINK

YOU CAN SEE THE PRODUCT.

FILM NARRATOR: FUTURAMIC--IT'S

A BRAND-NEW WORD FOR DRAMATIC

DESIGN OF THE FUTURE.

DE GUZMAN: IN THE LATE FORTIES,

THE WAR HAD FINISHED, AND

AMERICA BECAME CONFIDENT, AND

SO THERE'S THIS SORT OF

OPTIMISM AND THIS GROWTH.

PEOPLE WERE WANTING TO MAKE

THINGS THAT EXPRESSED AMERICA,

AND THE KIND OF POPULIST

MIDCENTURY MODERNIST DESIGN WAS

ABOUT THAT. THERE'S NO LONGER,

YOU KNOW, THIS IDEAL OF THERE'S

CERTAIN THINGS THAT ARE MADE

FOR UPPER-CLASS FOLKS AND FOR

OTHERS. YOU KNOW, BASICALLY THE

MIDDLE CLASS WAS THE DEFINING

THE IDEAL OF THAT EPOCH.

VOLLAND: EDGAR KAUFMANN WAS A

CURATOR AT MoMA, AND EDITH

HEATH FIRST LET WHEN SHE HAD A

STUDIO AT GUMP'S, AND HE WAS

LOOKING FOR PIECES TO PUT IN AN

EXHIBITION AT THE MUSEUM OF

MODERN ART.

WOMAN AS HEATH: MUSEUM

EXHIBITIONS WERE HELD OF LOCAL

CRAFTSPEOPLE'S WORK. THEY HAD

WHAT WAS CALLED "THE EVERYDAY

ARTS EXHIBITIONS OF EVERYDAY

ART," WHICH INCLUDED EVERYTHING

FROM FLATWARE TO GLASSWARE TO

DINNERWARE TO AUTOMOBILES TO

ANYTHING THAT WAS MANUFACTURED,

AND THINGS WERE JURIED AS TO

WHETHER THEY COULD GET IN,

WHETHER THEY HAD SUFFICIENT

QUALITY TO BE CONSIDERED OF

GOOD DESIGN.

VOLLAND: THEN SEVERAL YEARS

LATER, THEY WERE BOTH ASKED TO

BE ON A CERAMIC JURY UP IN

PORTLAND, OREGON, AND EDITH

TELLS THE STORY ABOUT HOW THEY

DROVE FROM CALIFORNIA TO

OREGON, AND THEY TALKED THE

ENTIRE WAY, AND KAUFMANN SAID

TO HER, "YOU KNOW, EDITH,

YOU'RE A CLASSIC," AND EDITH

SAID, "WHAT ARE YOU TALKING

ABOUT? WE'VE ONLY BEEN ON THE

MARKET FOR A FEW YEARS. HOW

COULD I POSSIBLY BE A CLASSIC?"

AND KAUFMANN BASICALLY SAID,

"YOU KNOW, MARK MY WORD, FROM

NOW ON, ALL DINNERWARE MADE IN

THE UNITED STATES WILL BE

JUDGED AGAINST WHAT YOU HAVE

CREATED." THIS WAS A SUPER

SIGNIFICANT MOMENT IN HER LIFE.

WOMAN AS HEATH: DESIGNERS AND

ARTISTS, LIKE POLITICIANS, HAVE

AN ACUTE SENSE OF TIME, OF

TIMES CHANGING. THEY HAVE A

SENSE OF HISTORY, OF WHAT HAS

HAPPENED BEFORE, OF WHAT IS

HAPPENING NOW, AND OF WHAT IS

ABOUT TO HAPPEN.

KLAUSNER: IF THERE IS REALLY

ONE THING THAT SENT HEATH ON

ITS PATH TO PROSPERITY, IT WAS

THE FORTUITOUS MEETING WITH

NELSON GUSTIN THE OWNER OF THE

N.S. COMPANY, WHICH WAS A

DISTRIBUTOR OF CERAMICS.

CABELLA: THEY REALIZED, WELL,

THERE'S A MARKET OUT THERE

BEYOND RICHARD GUMP'S. SO SHE

WAS SMART ENOUGH TO LEAVE HIM

AND TAKE WHAT SHE KNEW AND GO

TO THE NEXT STEP. GUSTIN IS

TALKING EAST COAST, WEST COAST,

ALL OF AMERICA.

KLAUSNER: GUSTIN OFFERED TO BE

THE SOLE DISTRIBUTOR OF EDITH'S

WORK, AND HE ALSO AGREED TO

PURCHASE EVERYTHING SHE

PRODUCED DURING HER FIRST YEAR

OF OPERATION.

VOLLAND: THEY OFFERED EDITH THE

SEED MONEY TO MOVE FROM GUMP'S

IN THE CLAY STREET STUDIO OVER

TO SAUSALITO TO THE MASON FERRY

BUILDING AND SORT OF SET UP

SHOP OVER THERE AND START A

MORE COMMERCIALIZED PRODUCTION

OF HEATH CERAMICS INSTEAD OF

THE HAND-THROWN.

KLAUSNER: SAUSALITO IS KNOWN

FOR ITS HOUSEBOAT COMMUNITIES.

THEY WERE THERE BEFORE THE

SHIPBUILDERS CAME, AND THEY

CERTAINLY ARE STILL THERE

TODAY, AND EDITH AND BRIAN

JUMPED RIGHT IN HEADFIRST.

WOMAN AS HEATH: ALL THE PEOPLE

WHO LIVED ON THE WATERFRONT

WERE IMPROVISING HOUSING OF ONE

KIND OR ANOTHER. THAT'S ONE OF

THE REASONS WE BOUGHT THE

BARGE. THERE WAS ALL THIS

LUMBER THAT HAD BEEN LEFT FROM

THE SHIPYARDS, AND THAT'S WHAT

WE BUILT A HOUSE OUT OF.

NOVAK: THE DOROTHEA WAS EDITH

AND BRIAN'S BARGE, VERY UNIQUE

COMPARED TO MOST HOUSEBOATS,

AND IT HAD A ROOF THAT OPENED

COMPLETELY. WHEN EDITH WAS IN

HER LIVING ROOM, SHE WAS

VIRTUALLY OUTSIDE ALL THE TIME.

SO I THINK THAT EXPERIENCE

REALLY SHAPED HER IDEA OF WHAT

A CALIFORNIA LIFESTYLE IS AND

WHAT HEATHWARE WAS.

KLAUSNER: EDITH'S HAND-THROWN

DINNERWARE WAS THE INSPIRATION

FOR HER FIRST TRUE LINE CALLED

THE COUPE LINE. WHEN IT WAS

RELEASED IN 1947, THE COUPE

LINE WAS VERY POPULAR.

VOLLAND: THE COUPE LINE WAS A

SYNTHESIS OF ALL THE IDEAS AND

ALL OF EDITH'S EXPERIENCES TO

DATE. SIMPLICITY AND BEAUTY,

ENDURANCE, THE ORGANIC

QUALITIES, BEING OF THE EARTH.

ALL OF THOSE THINGS WENT INTO

THE MAKING OF THE COUPE LINE.

CHIANG: IF I HAVE TO WRITE AN

ARTICLE ABOUT COUPE AND

DESCRIBE THE DESIGN, I CANNOT.

THERE'S NO DECORATION ON IT,

AND IT'S JUST THIS CIRCLE

EXPRESSING THE COLOR OF THE

GLAZE, THE MATERIAL OF THE

CLAY, AND I THINK THAT BECOME

COUPE. I THINK THE COUPE LINE,

FOR ME, IS SO DISTINCT IT'S

BECAUSE THEY ARE NOT DISTINCT.

MUNIZ: THE OTHER NICE ELEMENT

ABOUT THE COUPE LINE IS JUST

THE GENTLE EDGE. IT'S ALSO VERY

DURABLE, AND THAT'S WHAT EDITH

REALLY WANTED TO MAKE SURE,

THAT THESE PLATES WERE

BEAUTIFUL AND ELEGANT BUT WERE

DURABLE ENOUGH FOR EVERYDAY

WEAR.

WOMAN AS HEATH: I DON'T LIKE

HIGHLY STYLIZED THINGS. I LIKE

THINGS THAT ARE EASY, SOFT

SHAPES, THAT ARE MORE LIKE A

FOLK DANCE AS COMPARED WITH

BALLET. I DIDN'T THINK THE

AMERICAN WAY OF LIFE WAS THAT

DISCIPLINED. PEOPLE ARE MUCH

MORE EASY-GOING, MORE HUMANE

AND LESS CONCERNED WITH STATUS.

IN OTHER WORDS, I WAS TRYING TO

DO SOMETHING THAT WAS MORE

EGALITARIAN RATHER THAN

ARISTOCRATIC.

DE GUZMAN: THE WAY I THINK

ABOUT IT IT'S LIKE--IT'S THE

BLUE JEANS OF DINNERWARE. IT'S

JUST SO VERSATILE.

NOVAK: AND THAT WAS KIND OF

THIS CALIFORNIA IDEAL AT THE

TIME, AND SO FOR HER, THAT LINE

WAS BEING ABLE TO SELL

SOMETHING TO THE MASSES THAT

WAS A WORK OF ART BUT WAS ALSO

AVAILABLE AND ACCESSIBLE.

[DRAMATIC MUSIC PLAYING]

VOLLAND: EDITH ALWAYS TALKED

ABOUT THE INTERNATIONAL DESIGN

CONFERENCE IN ASPEN AS ONE OF

THE FORMATIVE EXPERIENCES OF

HER LIFE. IT BASICALLY BROUGHT

TOGETHER PEOPLE IN THE BUSINESS

WORLD WITH THE PEOPLE IN THE

DESIGN WORLD. SHE AND BRIAN

WOULD GO THERE EVERY YEAR

STARTING IN THE MID-1950s. ONE

OF THE BIG THINGS THAT THEY

TALKED ABOUT WAS THIS IDEA OF

PLANNED OBSOLESCENCE, AND SO

THIS WAS A BIG DEBATE OBVIOUSLY

BETWEEN PEOPLE IN THE

BUSINESS WORLD AND PEOPLE

IN THE DESIGN WORLD.

WOMAN AS HEATH: SOME QUESTIONED

THE MOTIVE OF DESIGNING FOR

OBSOLESCENCE, AND THE RESPONSE

WAS, "WELL, IF YOU DIDN'T

DESIGN FOR OBSOLESCENCE,

EVENTUALLY, IF EVERYTHING

LASTED FOREVER, BUSINESS WOULD

FAIL." WE ARE LIVING IN SUCH A

MIXED-UP CHAOTIC PERIOD IN THE

ARTS, IN POLITICS, ECONOMICS.

EVERYONE IS STANDING ON HIS

HEAD OR DOING SOMETHING WEIRD

IN THE WAY OF CREATIVITY. WE

ARE WASTING NATURAL RESOURCES.

WE MUST LEARN TO CONSERVE. NO

LONGER CAN WE THROW THINGS

AWAY. PEOPLE WILL BECOME MORE

SOBER-MINDED AND MAKE THINGS

THAT ARE REALLY NEEDED

INSTEAD OF JUST HAVING A

GOOD TIME OR GETTING RICH QUICK.

NOVAK: EDITH, HER WHOLE CAREER,

NEVER WANTED TO THROW ANYTHING

AWAY, SO THE IDEA OF DESIGNING

SOMETHING TO BE THROWN AWAY WAS

SO OPPOSITE HER VALUE SYSTEM,

AND SHE FERVENTLY BELIEVED

THAT, "NO, I MAKE A PRODUCT

THAT CAN BE USED FOREVER AND

THAT'S WHY I BELIEVE IN IT."

WOMAN AS HEATH: I WANT OTHERS

TO DREAM WITH ME, TO BUILD

FACTORIES THAT ARE FUN TO WORK

IN, PLACES OF WORK THAT

ENNOBLE, RATHER THAN DEGRADE

THE SPIRIT OF MAN...

WHERE THINGS OF BEAUTY ARE MADE

SOUND, DEVOID OF BUILT-IN

OBSOLESCENCE, TIMELESS,

EVOLVING, FREE OF THE TYRANNY

OF TRADITION AND THE PRESSURES

OF COMPETITION AND COMMERCE.

BROODER: A FRIEND OF MINE

LIVED IN SAUSALITO. I WENT TO

SEE HIM, AND I SAID, "I NEED A

JOB," AND HE TOOK ME TO HEATH

CERAMICS, AND THAT WAS IN 1964.

IT'S HARD TO DESCRIBE JUST HOW

MUCH THAT BUILDING MEANT TO ME

AND STILL DOES. IT WAS LIKE THE

IDEAL PLACE TO BE WORKING.

EDITH DESIGNED IT ALONG WITH

THE ARCHITECTS CLAUDE STOLLER

AND BOB MARQUIS.

WOMAN AS HEATH: I KNEW EXACTLY

WHERE EVERYTHING WAS GOING TO

BE. WHEN YOU MAKE A PIECE OF

CLAY WORK, IT'S HANDLED A

MINIMUM OF 16 TIMES, SO YOU

WANT TO HAVE AS LITTLE WASTED

SPACE BETWEEN ONE ACTIVITY AND

THE NEXT ONE. SO I DESIGNED IT

AS A SORT OF DOUGHNUT WITH A

HOLE IN THE MIDDLE THAT WAS AN

INTERIOR PATIO WITH LIGHT

COMING IN FROM ALL SIDES.

BROODER: EVERY EMPLOYEE HAD A

WINDOW OR NATURAL LIGHT WHERE

THEY WERE WORKING.

RUSSELL CRITTENDON: I ENJOYED

WATCHING THE BOATS COMING IN

AND OUT OF RICHARDSON'S BAY

WHEN I WORKED ON THIS SIDE OF

THE BUILDING. SHE TOLD ME ONCE

THAT WASN'T BY ACCIDENT THAT

THERE ARE HUMANE WORK STATIONS

HERE AT HEATH.

DE GUZMAN: IN FACT, SHE WAS SO

INFLUENTIAL IN THAT BUILDING,

SHE WAS ABLE TO PUT HER NAME ON

THE PLAN, WHICH WAS INCREDIBLY

RARE. BOTH BIG AND SMALL, HER

WORK HAD THAT KIND OF

INTEGRITY, AND I THINK THAT'S

WHY IT STILL SHINES TODAY.

BROODER: THERE WERE, I THINK,

28 PEOPLE WORKING, AND AT THAT

POINT IN HEATH'S EXISTENCE 25%

OF OUR BUSINESS WAS ASHTRAYS.

MUNIZ: THE ASHTRAY WAS ONE OF

THE EARLY PLACES THAT THEY

DEVELOPED, AND THE THING THAT

MADE THEM VERY UNIQUE WAS THE

CHARACTERISTIC NOTCH. THIS

WOULD HOLD YOUR CIGARETTE SO

THAT IT COULD CONTINUE TO BURN,

BUT THEN IF IT GOT TO THE EDGE

OF THE CERAMIC, THE COOLNESS OF

THE CERAMIC WOULD ACTUALLY

EXTINGUISH THE ASHTRAY. SO IT

WAS CONSIDERED A SAFETY

FEATURE. BRIAN ACTUALLY WAS THE

DESIGNER. EDITH WAS VERY

SPECIFIC IN MAKING SURE THAT

BRIAN GOT THE CREDIT FOR THE

ASHTRAY, AND IT REALLY HELPED TO

CREATE THE HEATH BRAND TO

PEOPLE THAT MAY NOT HAVE

KNOWN THE WHO THEY WERE.

WINNIE CRITTENDON: WHEN I FIRST

CAME TO THE HEATH FACTORY IN

THE EARLY SEVENTIES, BRIAN AND

EDITH HAD AN OPENING FOR A CUP

HANDLER. IT WAS REALLY

WONDERFUL WORKING WITH EDITH.

SHE WAS A NATURAL TEACHER, AND

SHE WOULD GET VERY EXCITED

ABOUT DISCOVERING NEW

COMBINATIONS OR A SURPRISING

EFFECT THAT SHE WASN'T

EXPECTING, AND IT WAS RATHER

CONTAGIOUS, AND WE WORKED ON A

LOT OF DIFFERENT PROJECTS. SHE

WAS DEFINITELY INTERESTED IN THE

CHEMISTRY OF GLAZES, JUST BEING

A NATURALLY CURIOUS PERSON. MOST

CERAMICISTS ARE GOING TO RUN

INTO SOME SORT OF FLAW OR

PROBLEM, AND YOU REALLY NEED

TO BE A DETECTIVE TO FIND OUT

WHAT IT IS THAT'S CAUSING THE

PROBLEM. IT REALLY HELPS IF YOU

KNOW SOME GLAZE CHEMISTRY. WHEN

WE WOULD COME ACROSS A PROBLEM

WITH A GLAZE, SHE WOULD HAVE US

MIX THE GLAZE AT FIRST JUST

THE WATER AND THE BENTONITE.

THEN THE WATER, BENTONITE,

AND THE CLAY AND JUST ADDING ONE

INGREDIENT AT A TIME IN ORDER TO

SEE WHAT EACH INGREDIENT

WAS DOING IN THE GLAZE AND

HOPEFULLY SEE WHERE THE

PROBLEM SUDDENLY SHOWS UP.

BAILEY: THE GLAZING IS A REAL

CRITICAL PART OF THE PROCESS

AND REQUIRES A LOT OF SKILL. A

SPRAY GUN IS USED TO APPLY THE

GLAZE, AND THE GLAZE NEEDS TO

BE APPLIED VERY SPECIFICALLY AT

A CERTAIN WEIGHT AND EVEN AT A

CERTAIN SPEED. SOME GLAZES NEED

TO BE APPLIED DIFFERENTLY THAN

OTHERS. THEY'LL STAMP THE

BOTTOM OF THE PIECE WITH THE

INDIVIDUAL GLAZER'S MARK.

EVERYBODY GLAZES SLIGHTLY

DIFFERENT, SO SOMETIMES IT'S

KIND OF INTERESTING. YOU CAN

SEE WHO GLAZED YOUR PLATE.

WE'RE MAKING THESE AND GLAZING

THEM BY HAND. HAVING SOME

VARIATION IS OK, BUT THERE IS A

STANDARD THAT WE'RE TRYING TO

HIT. OFTEN, THE PIECE IS

SUPPOSED TO HAVE AN EXPOSED

EDGE, AND SO WE GO BACK AND

SCRAPE OFF THAT EDGE. WE ALSO

SCRAPE THE BOTTOM FOOT ON THE

PLATE SO THAT IT DOESN'T STICK

TO THE KILN SHELF, AND WHEN YOU

TURN OVER A PLATE, YOU CAN KIND

OF SEE THAT.

WINNIE CRITTENDON: EDITH REALLY

DISDAINED CLEAR, SHINY GLAZES.

HER ORIGINAL IDEA WAS TO GET

AWAY FROM THE BONE CHINA LOOK,

AND SHE WANTED THE CLAY TO

INTERACT WITH THE GLAZE AND

BECOME ONE THING. SHE WASN'T

INTERESTED IN HAVING EVERYTHING

STAMPED OUT PERFECTLY THE SAME

EVERY TIME.

SHE LOVED THE VARIATION, AND I

THINK THAT THAT IS PARTLY

BECAUSE NATURE HAS MORE

VARIATION THAN MACHINES. SHE'S

VERY INTERESTED IN THE GEOLOGY

AND VOLCANIC INTERACTION OF

GLAZES

AND WOULD LOVE IT WHEN YOU

STARTED TO SEE SOME OF THE

CRATERS AND BLISTERING AND THE

ACTION OF THE FIRE ON MELTING

GLASS AND STONE.

I'M JUST REALLY APPRECIATING

THAT TUNG LIKES TO WORK IN A

SIMILARLY INSPIRING WAY THAT

EDITH WAS WORKING, DOING A LOT

OF EXPERIMENTATION.

WOMAN AS HEATH: A SHAPE IS

FIRST SENSED IN THE MIND OF THE

POTTER. IT TAKES FORM IN THE

WORKING. FROM THE BACK OF THE

MIND, IT BECOMES REALITY FOR

ALL TO SEE, TO TOUCH, TO FEEL,

TO EXAMINE, A SHAPELESS BIT OF

MATTER TRANSFORMED TO TAKE ITS

PLACE IN THE WORLD.

BROODER: ONE OF THE THINGS THAT

MADE THE ARCHITECTS AND

DESIGNERS AND THE DESIGN WORLD

IN GENERAL RESPECT EDITH WAS

HER DESIGN OF THE TILE FOR THE

NORTON SIMON ART MUSEUM. IT WAS

A MAJOR PROJECT FOR WHICH SHE

WON THE AIA GOLD MEDAL, THE

ONLY CERAMICIST EVER TO WIN

THAT AWARD. EDITH CREATED A

DUAL GLAZE PROCESS, WHERE SHE

LAYERED A RED GLAZE OVER A

BLACK GLAZE, AND IT CREATED A

KIND OF--AS EDITH CALLED IT, A

KIND OF VOLCANIC EFFECT WHERE

THE GLAZES MIXED AND ERUPTED,

AND SHE CALLED IT "THE ANCESTRAL

MAGMA." IT MADE WAVES ALL OVER

THE COUNTRY. SHE MET A LOT OF

RESISTANCE FROM THE ARCHITECTS,

WHO SAID, "NO, WE'RE NOT GOING

TO USE THAT. WE CAN'T," AND THEY

FINALLY ENDED UP COMING BACK TO

HER BECAUSE EDITH SAID, "I'M NOT

GOING CHANGE IT. THIS IS WHAT

I'LL MAKE FOR YOU, AND IF YOU

DON'T WANT IT, THEN YOU CAN GO

SOMEWHERE ELSE," AND THEY CAME

BACK. IT WAS A WHOLE NEW PALETTE

FOR EDITH TO EXPLORE, A WHOLE

NEW DESIGN AND ARTISTIC PALETTE

BECAUSE SHE COULD COMBINE

GLAZES. SHE COULD DO THINGS

THAT YOU CAN'T DO WITH

TABLEWARE. IT OPENED UP A LOT

OF CREATIVE DOORS FOR HER.

RUSSELL CRITTENDON: MY VERY

FIRST JOB WORKING FOR EDITH

HEATH WAS PAINTING THE

BUILDING. THIS WAS 1973. SHE

WAS OPINIONATED ABOUT THE WAY

THINGS WORKED. IF YOU WERE

SPREADING CONCRETE, FOR

EXAMPLE, SHE WOULD GRAB THE

RAKE OUT OF YOUR HAND AND SAY,

"NO, NOT LIKE THAT. DO IT LIKE

THIS."

WOMAN AS HEATH: EVERY NOW AND

THEN, I TALK OUT LOUD TO

SOMEONE ABOUT WHAT I THINK,

REVEALING SOMETHING OF MYSELF,

AT THE RISK OF BEING CHARGED

WITH BEING ONE OF THOSE

FEMALE-KNOW-IT-ALLS WHO'S

ALWAYS RIGHT. FOR THE VARIANT,

YOU HAVE TO BE WRONG SOMETIMES

AS IF LIVING AND THINKING HAD

MORE TO DO WITH RIGHT AND WRONG

THAN WITH PASSIONATE CREATION.

BROODER: EDITH WAS DIFFICULT.

SHE WAS DIFFICULT FOR EVERYBODY

WHO HAD A RELATIONSHIP WITH

HER. NOBODY HAD ANY EASY

RELATIONSHIP WITH HER, BUT IT

WAS BORN OUT OF FRUSTRATION

THAT THIS COMPANY THAT SHE HAD

CREATED WAS RUN BY MEN. THE

BUSINESS END OF IT WAS RUN BY

MEN, AND THAT WAS THE SOURCE OF

A LOT OF CONFLICT BETWEEN BRIAN

AND EDITH.

RUSSELL CRITTENDON: EDITH HEATH

HAD THIS THING ABOUT BEING A

WOMAN IN A MAN'S INDUSTRIAL

WORLD THAT SHE WOULD SPEAK

ABOUT FROM TIME TO TIME.

WOMAN AS HEATH: I'M CERTAIN

MANY WOMEN DO THE SAME, TRYING

TO EXPLAIN TO ONESELF THE

MEANING OF LIFE, THEORETICALLY

FREE AND EMANCIPATED BUT LIVING

IN DREAD OF AN EMASCULATING

WORD OR DEED.

NOVAK: EDITH IS A PRETTY

AMAZING MODEL OF SOMEONE WHO IS

ABLE TO GAIN RECOGNITION AMIDST

A LOT OF BARRIERS TO WOMEN AT

THE TIME. LOOKING BACK AT HER

CAREER AND SEEING THE WAY THAT

SHE HAD MEN RUNNING HER

BUSINESS AND OFTEN TELLING HER

WHAT TO DO BUT SHE WAS STILL

THE STRONGEST FORCE AT HEATH

CERAMICS IS REALLY KEY TO

UNDERSTANDING HER PLACE IN

HISTORY.

RUSSELL CRITTENDON: THIS

FRICTION THAT SHE HAD WITH HER

WORKERS AND HER HUSBAND YIELDED

A BEAUTIFUL DESIGN. I DON'T

KNOW HOW THAT HAPPENED, BUT IT

DID. IT'S LIKE LIGHTNING IN A

BOTTLE. I THINK EDITH WILL BE

REMEMBERED IN THE FUTURE AS A

BRILLIANT DESIGNER, BUT IF YOU

DIG A LITTLE DEEPER, IT WAS A

GEOLOGICAL FASCINATION FOR HER,

AND IT ENCOMPASSED CHEMISTRY

AND THERMODYNAMICS. SHE SAID,

"SOMEDAY, WE ARE GOING TO BE

FIRING POTTERY WITH THE ENERGY

FROM THE SUN." I MEAN, IT REALLY

IS VISIONARY. I MEAN, THAT'S A

VISIONARY THING TO SAY,

YOU KNOW?

BAILEY: AFTER EVERYTHING IS

GLAZED AND PREPARED, IT'S READY

TO BE PUT IN THE KILN AND

FIRED. WE USE MORE TRADITIONAL

GAS KILNS. THEY FIRE AT CONE

02, WHICH IS A VERY LOW FIRING

TEMPERATURE. IT MAKES IT A VERY

DURABLE, LONG-LASTING PIECE.

THAT WAS EDITH'S DESIGN TO FIRE

IT AT A LOW TEMPERATURE TO SAVE

ENERGY AND ALSO TO PRODUCE A

GREATER RANGE OF COLOR. THE

HIGHER TEMPERATURE CAN BURN OUT

MORE COLOR, SO WE HAVE ALL

THESE INCREDIBLE COLORS

THAT WE'RE ABLE TO GET

BECAUSE OF THE PROCESS.

WOMAN AS HEATH: I AM AS MUCH AN

ALCHEMIST AS I AM A DESIGNER.

BY REASSEMBLING MINERALS THAT

HAVE BEEN DISPERSED THROUGH THE

FACE OF THE EARTH, THE POTTER

LITERALLY CREATES A

METAMORPHOSIS FROM STONE TO

STONE. THE MAGIC PERFORMED BY

HEAT AND OXYGEN MAKES THE

MINERALS IN THE CLAY AND GLAZE

BUBBLE AND BOIL AS MOLTEN LAVA,

TO WHICH THEY ARE KIN, CHANGING

IN TEXTURE AND VARYING IN COLOR

WITH THE LENGTH OF THE FIRING

AND THE SPEED WITH

WHICH THE FIRE COOLS.

BAILEY: THE NEXT DAY, IT'S

READY TO BE TAKEN OUT OF THE

KILN AND STILL WARM TO THE

TOUCH. IT'S LIKE A BAKED BREAD

IN THE MORNING, KIND OF

EXCITING TO SEE. IT'S A 24-HOUR

PROCESS. IF YOU BRING UP THE

TEMPERATURE TOO FAST, IT WILL

CRACK. IF YOU BRING DOWN THE

TEMPERATURE TOO FAST, IT WILL

CRACK. SO IT HAS TO SLOWLY GO

UP TO TEMPERATURE, BE AT

TEMPERATURE REALLY FOR A SHORT

WHILE, AND THEN YOU SLOWLY

DECREASE THE TEMPERATURE.

THE LAST PART OF THE PROCESS IS

TO TAKE ALL OF THAT PRODUCT AND

CHECK IT AND SEE IF IT ACTUALLY

DOES MATCH THE DESIGN INTENT

AND THE QUALITY INTENT.

CABELLA: WELL, COME THE 1980s

EDITH, FOR THE FIRST TIME,

FACES MAJOR COMPETITION, AND

THAT'S WHAT SLOWS PRODUCTION

DOWN. SHE HAS TO COMPETE WITH

NOT JUST OTHER LARGER

FACILITIES, BUT NOW SHE HAS TO

COMPETE WITH OTHER COUNTRIES,

OTHER MATERIALS, OTHER TRENDS.

NOVAK: CLIENTS WERE CHANGING TO

MUCH CHEAPER AND OFTEN LESS

DURABLE OPTIONS OF CERAMIC

PRODUCTS THAT WERE BEING

SHIPPED FROM OVERSEAS AND WERE

REALLY AFFORDABLE.

BROODER: HEATH WAS HAVING A

FINANCIAL STRUGGLE. ALONG WITH

THAT, THERE WERE ENVIRONMENTAL

CONSTRAINTS THAT BRIAN AND

EDITH SHOULD'VE PAID ATTENTION

TO LONG BEFORE THEY DID. GLAZE

WASTE WAS GOING RIGHT OUT INTO

THE BAY. THE EPA WAS INFORMED

OF WHAT WAS GOING ON, AND THEY

CAME IN AND SAID, "YOU CAN'T DO

THIS ANYMORE."

WINNIE CRITTENDON: SO ON THE

ONE HAND, SHE WANTED TO PROTECT

THE EARTH. ON THE OTHER HAND,

SHE DIDN'T LIKE REGULATION

TELLING HER WHAT TO DO.

BROODER: SHE DID NOT LIKE

WASTE. SHE WANTED MATERIALS TO

BE USED AND REUSED. ONE OF THE

THINGS SHE STARTED DOING, WHICH

WE'RE DOING NOW, THE SHELVES

THAT WE USE IN THE KILNS, EDITH

WANTED TO GLAZE THOSE ONCE THEY

WERE NO LONGER USABLE AS KILN

SHELVES AND TURN THEM INTO

TILE, AND NOW WE'RE DOING THAT.

SHE WAS VERY MUCH IN EARLY

ENVIRONMENTALIST IN THAT REGARD.

ROSA NOVAK: IN THIS ESSAY THAT

EDITH WROTE WHEN SHE WAS AT THE

CHICAGO TEACHERS COLLEGE IN THE

EARLY TO MID-THIRTIES CALLED

"MY CHOICE FOR PRESIDENT," SHE

REALLY RUNS OVER THESE

INTERESTING AND KIND OF

AHEAD-OF HER-TIME IDEAS ABOUT

MATERIAL USE AND LAND AND BEING

REALLY INTERESTED IN RECYCLING

MATERIAL LATER IN HER CAREER

AND TRYING TO CUT DOWN ON WASTE

AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE THROUGHOUT

THE ENTIRETY OF HEATH CERAMICS.

HEATH: WHAT I'VE BEEN WORKING

ON THIS MORNING IS TRYING TO

FIGURE OUT WHAT THE MODULE

SHOULD BE. CLAY IS GOING TO BE

USED AS STRUCTURALLY RATHER

THAN AS A FACING. R, A, 12, R,

A. NOW THIS I'M GOING TO CUT

BECAUSE THAT'S A 10-INCHER, AND

I DON'T WANT A 10. IT DOESN'T

WORK, YOU SEE?

RUSSELL CRITTENDON: DURING THE

LATE NINETIES, IT WAS LOOKING

REALLY GRIM FOR THE BUSINESS.

THE HEATHS HAD NO SUCCESSION

PLAN IN PLACE.

WINNIE CRITTENDON: EDITH DIDN'T

WANT TO LOOK AHEAD AT THE

FUTURE AND DIDN'T WANT TO

DECIDE ON WHAT SHOULD HAPPEN TO

HEATH CERAMICS. WE KNEW THAT

THERE WASN'T ENOUGH MONEY

COMING IN TO JUST PAY EVERYBODY

ALL THE TIME ON A REGULAR

BASIS, AND SO THAT WAS REALLY

SCARY FOR THE EMPLOYEES

THINKING THAT WE MIGHT BE OUT

OF A JOB.

BROODER: WE HAD TO KEEP THE

COMPANY GOING, AND IT REQUIRED

ME, ESPECIALLY, TO DO THINGS

THAT WERE NOT IN TUNE WITH WHAT

EDITH WANTED. WE HAD TO

ADVERTISE, BUT I HAD TO GO OUT

TO EDITH AND BRIAN'S HOME AND

TAKE THE PAGE OUT OF THE

NEWSPAPERS THAT HAD THE AD IN

THEM SO THEY WOULDN'T SEE THAT.

WOMAN AS HEATH: I THOUGHT I HAD

SUFFERED EVERY FRUSTRATION,

KNOWN EVERY AGONY, EVERY DOUBT

LIVING WITH YOU ALL THESE

YEARS. YOU WERE THE PLAYFUL

ONE, WHO SUFFERED THE DOING OF

THINGS JUST TO BE BY MY SIDE,

TO BE WITH ME, YOUR ONLY

PURPOSE IN LIFE TO PLEASE ME.

WHAT I NOW MUST LEARN, A BITTER

TRUTH, THAT YOU ARE MORE

IMPORTANT TO ME THAN ANYTHING

ELSE IN THE WORLD.

BROODER: I THINK BRIAN'S DEATH

HAD A MUCH GREATER IMPACT ON

HER THAN ANY OF US WOULD HAVE

EXPECTED BECAUSE OF THE

VOLATILITY OF THEIR

RELATIONSHIP OVER THE YEARS,

BUT THEY WERE A TEAM, AND SO

WHEN BRIAN DIED, I THINK EDITH

REALLY DID FEEL AN EMPTINESS,

AND SHE BUILT A KIND OF SHRINE

IN HER FIREPLACE FOR BRIAN'S

ASHES. FOR HER TO DO THAT

REALLY SHOWED HOW MUCH SHE

MISSED HIM, AND SHE MORE AND

MORE WITHDREW INTO

HERSELF AFTER BRIAN DIED.

THERE WERE A NUMBER OF DEALS

PUT FORTH TO BUY HEATH FROM

VARIOUS PEOPLE TO GIVE IT AN

INFUSION OF CASH AND PROMOTE

THE PRODUCT. EDITH COULDN'T LET

GO. IT WOULD GET TO THE POINT

WHERE THE PAPERS WERE TO BE

SIGNED, AND THEY WOULDN'T GET

SIGNED, AND THAT HAPPENED TIME

AFTER TIME AFTER TIME, AND I

HAD PRETTY MUCH DESPAIRED THAT

THAT WAS EVER GOING TO HAPPEN

UNTIL ROBIN AND CATHY CAME

ALONG.

BAILEY: IN 2003, I RAN ACROSS

THE FACTORY AND THOUGHT, "OH,

THAT'S SO WEIRD. THAT'S THE

SAME NAME AS THAT POTTERY THAT

IS FROM THE MIDCENTURY. I

WONDER IF THERE'S A

CONNECTION." HEH HEH. THE

SECOND WE WALKED IN, WE WERE IN

LOVE WITH THIS PLACE. THERE WAS

SOMETHING DIFFERENT ABOUT IT

THAN ANYTHING ELSE WE HAD

EXPERIENCED, AND THE PEOPLE

WORKING THERE, IT WAS A LABOR

OF LOVE. WE DIDN'T KNOW IT WAS

FOR SALE.

PETRAVIC: WE JUST SAID, "WELL,

LET'S JUST GO FOR IT."

HEATH: I LIKE TO LET THE

MATERIAL LEAD YOU SO WHEN YOU

FIND A PIECE THAT HAS A CURVE

LIKE THIS AND YOU WANT TO FIND

ANOTHER CURVE TO SORT OF--SEE,

THEN YOU CAN SET UP A MOVEMENT

TO SEE WHERE YOU'RE MOVING FROM.

BROODER: THE FINAL YEARS OF

EDITH'S LIFE, IT WAS HARD TO

WATCH THIS BRILLIANT WOMAN IN

DECLINE. SHE DID HAVE DEMENTIA,

BUT SHE STILL HAD THAT ENERGY

AND THAT DRIVE THAT NEVER, EVER

WENT AWAY TO THE DAY THAT SHE

DIED REALLY. I COULDN'T QUITE

BELIEVE THAT THIS FORCE OF LIFE

WAS GONE, AND AS I SAID, WE ALL

HAD DIFFICULT RELATIONSHIPS

WITH EDITH BUT, WE ALL LOVED

HER IN OUR OWN WAY, AND SHE

LOVED US.

MUNIZ: NORMALLY WHEN YOU TALK

ABOUT THE HISTORY OF DESIGN AND

THE HISTORY OF ART, IT'S A VERY

MALE HISTORY, AND IT'S NOT

OFTEN FEMALE. WE LIVE IN A TIME

PERIOD RIGHT NOW WHERE A LOT OF

WOMEN ARTISTS, A LOT OF WOMEN

DESIGNERS ARE FINALLY GETTING

THE RECOGNITION THAT THEY

DESERVE. EDITH CAME AT THAT

PERFECT MOMENT IN HISTORY AND

THE PERFECT PLACE, AND SHE

FOUND THAT OPPORTUNITY, AND SHE

WENT FOR IT.

NOVAK: SHE WAS NOT ONLY CAPABLE

OF DOING ALL OF THE CERAMIC

CHEMISTRY OF IT, BUT SHE WAS

CAPABLE OF USING THAT TO DO

SOMETHING THAT NO ONE HAD DONE

AND DROVE HOME WHAT CERAMIC

INDUSTRY COULD BE IN TERMS OF

SUSTAINABILITY, ENERGY

EFFICIENCY, AND WASTE RECYCLING.

VOLLAND: SHE BROKE WITH

TRADITION AND FORGED HER OWN

PATH. EDITH WAS MORE FOCUSED ON

CREATING THAN ACTUALLY

MARKETING OR SELLING HER

PRODUCTS, THAT THAT WAS WHERE

HER LOVE WAS WAS IN REFINING

AND EXPERIMENTING AND MAKING

SURE THAT HER PRODUCT WAS THE

BEST IT COULD BE.

KLAUSNER: IT'S NOT EASY TO

DISTILL DOWN WITHIN DESIGN TO

THOSE FEW THINGS THAT RESONATE

WITH PEOPLE, AND WHEN YOU HIT

ON THAT THE WAY EDITH DID, IT

LASTS FOREVER.

CABELLA: WHETHER YOU SAW IT IN

THE SIXTIES, THE SEVENTIES, THE

EIGHTIES, IT WAS HEATH. I MEAN,

YOU JUST KNEW WHAT IT WAS.

RUSSELL CRITTENDON: HEATHWARE

IS A BIT LIKE THE BLUES. IT'S

AN AMERICAN ORIGINAL. ITS

BEAUTY IS ITS SIMPLICITY, BUT

IT'S ACTUALLY VERY DIFFICULT TO

PULL IT OFF WELL.

DE GUZMAN: YOU KNOW, SOME

THINGS GO IN AND OUT OF

FASHION, BUT THE IDEA OF BEING

GROUNDED AND BEING FOCUSED AND

BEING GENEROUS AND BEING

COMMUNAL WILL ALWAYS BE OF

VALUE.

WOMAN AS HEATH: YOU KNOW, WE

SHOULD BE SO GRATEFUL THAT WE

LIVE IN THIS PART OF THE WORLD.

IT'S ONE OF THE MOST BEAUTIFUL

AREAS, AND WE'RE SO LUCKY.

THAT'S THE WAY THAT I FEEL

ABOUT WHAT'S GOING TO BE THE

FUTURE OF HEATH CERAMICS. IT'S

BROUGHT ME A GREAT DEAL OF

PLEASURE, AND I LIVED IN A

BEAUTIFUL PART OF THE WORLD,

AND I'VE BEEN ABLE TO DO WHAT I

WANTED TO DO.

ANNOUNCER: THIS PROGRAM WAS

MADE POSSIBLE IN PART BY A

GRANT FROM ANNE RAY FOUNDATION,

A MARGARET A. CARGILL

PHILANTHROPY; THE

LOS ANGELES COUNTY BOARD OF

SUPERVISORS THROUGH THE

LOS ANGELES COUNTY ARTS

COMMISSION; THE LOS ANGELES

DEPARTMENT OF CULTURAL AFFAIRS;

THE CALIFORNIA HUMANITIES; AND

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