Twelve Disciples of Nelson Mandela and Spit on the Broom

TWELVE DISCIPLES OF NELSON MANDELA tells an intimate tale about an African-American family, the anti-apartheid movement, and the quest for reconciliation between a father and son. The accompanying experimental short SPIT ON THE BROOM highlights The United Order of Tents, a secret organization of black women founded during the height of the Underground Railroad.

AIRED: February 17, 2020 | 1:27:16

-His voice still echoes in my head.

-A son's glimpse into his father's heroic journey...

-The last time I saw Lee

was when I shot this footage of him

celebrating Father's Day in 1999.

Lee left South Africa

together with a group of 11 other comrades in 1960

to build the African National Congress,

the ANC, in exile.

-On this episode of "AfroPop," director Thomas Allen Harris'

"Twelve Disciples of Nelson Mandela"

followed by "Spit On the Broom" by Madeleine Hunt-Ehrlich,

a lyrical portrayal of the history

of the United Order of Tents, a radical secret society

of self-determined African-American women.

This is "AfroPop: The Ultimate Cultural Exchange."

From Brazil to Nigeria,

Turkey to Senegal,

we're taking you around the world

into the everyday lives

of the African diaspora.

-♪ Hey ♪

♪ Hey ♪

♪ Hey, hey ♪

♪ Hey ♪

-Funding for "AfroPop: The Ultimate Cultural Exchange"

is provided in part

by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting.

-[ Breathing heavily ]

-His voice still echoes in my head.

-Lee left South Africa

together with a group of 11 other comrades in 1960

to build the African National Congress,

the ANC, in exile.

-Some call them the 12 from Bloemfontein,

but to me,

they were 12 disciples of Nelson Mandela.

The last time I saw Lee was when I shot this footage of him

celebrating Father's Day in 1999

in the backyard of our house

in the Bronx.

It seems strange

that most of the images I have of Lee

were often from Father's Day.

He had raised me since I was 9 years old,

but I never called him father.

[ Siren wails ]

Lee died before I could see him in South Africa --

the land he fought all his life to liberate.

-[ Singing in African dialect ]

For a whole week, I've seen Lee feted as a hero.

[ Singing continues ]

Strangers come up to touch me,

often condolences

as his eldest son.

-[ Singing in African dialect ]

-He opened up

so many different doors for my brother and I.

He taught us how to be men.

He taught us how to be...


He taught us how to be warriors.

-[ Singing in African dialect ]

-Pule means rain in Tswana.

It's been raining seven days already.

Going through these photographs,

I try to piece together a picture of his past.

One image, in particular, captured me.

-Do you know the people in this picture?

This is a new picture.

-Yeah, yeah, okay. Yeah, yeah. Yeah, yeah.

-[ Laughs ]

-That's me here in the corner.

That's Dups.

That's Beans.

That's Motobi.

That's Percy.

That's Coaps.

That's Setai.

That's Peter Swartz.

That's Billy Mokhonoana.

That's Thlaps.

That's Matjoa and Lee, hmm?

[ Both laugh ]

[ Men chanting in African dialect ]

-Lee used to tell the story

about his political coming of age in 1952

with the Defiance Campaign...

[ Chanting continues ] of the ANC's first nationally organized expressions

of civil disobedience against the apartheid laws.

[ Chanting continues ]

-The story goes that Lee's older brother Ezekiel

was an organizer in the local chapter of the ANC.

Anticipating violence upon entering

the white section of Bloemfontein,

Ezekiel sent the young Lee back to the township.

-Go back.

Go back.

-[ Singing in African dialect ]

-What Lee didn't tell us

but what I was able to discover here in Bloemfontein

is how Ezekiel and the others

were beaten and tortured for weeks.

[ Indistinct shouting ]

-[ Chuckles ]

[ Indistinct conversations ]

-It was a hobby that Lee used

to recruit other colleagues

to the struggle.

[ Camera clicks ]

-[ Chuckles ]

-Shh! Listen to me. You fail this time.

Next time, you only do better. You understand me?

You're not going to give these people

the power to destroy you.

Hey, listen to me.

You have to stay focused. They want to break you down.

You have to stand up and fight the system.

-Yes. -[ Speaks African dialect ]

-[ Speaks African dialect ] -[ Speaks African dialect ]

-[ Speaks African dialect ]

-[ Singing in African dialect ]

-Lee and his comrades organized resistance

to an oppressive system of exploitation.

-The whole continent was rising up.

It offered a beacon of hope for South Africa.

-[ Shouting in African dialect ]

[ Cheers and applause ]

-They met in secret to discuss these events

and plan how to activate the appetite for freedom

among people in Bloemfontein.

-[ Speaks African dialect ]

-[ Speaks African dialect ]

[ Laughter ]

-I had seen this photograph many times before,

but I learned the full story behind it here in Bloemfontein.

It was like something out of a spy novel.

-[ Singing in African dialect ]

-Lee and Coaps formed a singing group

that allowed them a premise

to move freely throughout Bloemfontein

making connections

and recruiting new comrades

to the liberation movement.

[ Singing continues ]

But the police were on to them.

[ Indistinct talking ]

[ Indistinct shouting ]

[ Whistle blows ]

[ Chuckles ] [ Voice breaking ]

[ Indistinct shouting ]

-Demonstrations against the South African government's

strict apartheid policies flare into shocking violence.

The crowd refused to disperse

and began stoning the police,

who opened fire into the crowd from behind a wire fence.

Between 50 and 100 were killed

and hundreds injured.

-Just before his 24th birthday,

Lee's life changed dramatically

as did the strategies of the ANC.

[ Indistinct shouting ]

-ANC leadership around the country

was rounded up

with the exception of Oliver Tambo,

who had left the country to begin the ANC in exile.

-What we want in South Africa

is that our humanity should be acknowledged,

that those who are ruling in that country

should pay some respect

to the concept of human dignity.

-One of the disciples, Billy Mokhonoana,

had met with Nelson Mandela in Johannesburg.

Mandela encouraged Billy to return

and organize an ANC youth cell in Bloemfontein

that would be ready to carry on the struggle

from outside the country.

[ Indistinct conversations ]

-Mm-hmm. -Whatever action may come...

we have to adjust to it.


-Billy left to join Oliver Tambo

and set up the journey for the others to follow.

[ Engine starts ]

His leaving signals the birth

of the 12 disciples --

the first ANC group

to leave Bloemfontein.

The burning of their pass books

made Lee and his comrades outlaws in their own country.

[ Rooster crows ]

-[ Speaks African dialect ]

-They were released on the condition

that they return immediately to South Africa.

-They headed north, to the chief lands.

The chief lands were autonomous,

free from British colonial rule,

affording a measure of security

for a group of young strangers

traversing an unfamiliar land.

[ Singing in African dialect ]

-The chief received them as sons,

but from here on in,

they would have to feed themselves.

[ Singing continues ]

[ Pounding continues ]

[ Indistinct shouting ]

-They left home to fight,

but in Botswana,

all they could do was wait.

-Independence came to over a dozen states peaceably,

but in the Belgian Congo,

freedom was followed by rioting...

-But a civil war had erupted in the Congo,

and the plane could not refuel

to continue its journey to Botswana.

-...Premier Lumumba was seized

by the forces of strongman Colonel Mobutu,

but the struggle for power was far from over.

[ Indistinct talking ]

-[ Speaks African dialect ]

-Dar es Salaam,

their point of destination,

was 1,300 miles northeast,

across hostile territories

controlled by British colonial rule.

To avoid arrest,

they traversed the dangers of the bush.

And in the towns, they tried to make contact

with local liberation movements.

[ Indistinct conversation ]

-[ Shouting in African dialect ]

-Those who were arrested

were sent back to Botswana, where they regrouped again.

[ Indistinct conversation ]

-Their trek created the path

that thousands of future freedom fighters

leaving South Africa

would follow.

As part of the first wave of South Africans

to get to Dar es Salaam,

the arrival of Lee and his comrades

signified that there was a liberation movement in exile.

[ Men chanting in African dialect ]

[ Chanting continues ]

[ Cheers and applause ]

-British rule in Tanganyika

will come to an end.

-Soon after their arrival,

Tanganyika became independent,

and there were few resources available

for the freedom fighters.

-[ Singing in African dialect ]

[ Camera shutter clicks ]

-In 1962,

after living in Dar es Salaam for more than a year, Lee,

who had been so instrumental in keeping the group together,

was the first to leave.

-Liberia did not honor the promised scholarship.

Lee was pressed into servitude on a plantation.

He protested

and organized a revolt

and was forced to leave.

-[ Singing in African dialect ]

-Lee retired to Dar es Salaam to discover that Billy had been

killed under mysterious circumstances in London.

With Billy's death,

youthful idealism ended.

Could there ever be a safe haven

as long as South Africa was not free?

-[ Singing in African dialect ]

Talking with Lee's colleagues

made me realize that the battle to liberate South Africa

had been complex

and would have to be continued on two fronts.

One was changing world opinion about the ANC

and the South African liberation movement.

-[ Shouting in African dialect ]

-On the other front,

it was preparing for direct conflict

with the launching of uMkhonto we Sizwe,

Spear of the Nation,

the military wing of the ANC.

-...African National Congress.

South Africa's time...

-In order to get to Cuba,

they had to travel north

via the Sudan.

-Mr. Mandela?

-How are you? -Fine. And you, sir?

-Thank you very much.

[ Bars clink ]

Mandela's imprisonment fueled their need to fight.

-We will start a movement.

...of the battle for the African continent.

-The US threw up a steel fence

prepared to stop any vessel

carrying materials at war.

In Cuba itself, 100,000 men were put under emergency orders...

-For the disciples, Cuba was a mixed bag.

Percy Mokonopi began a career that would lead him to becoming

a general in MK.

But Matthew, a promising boxer,

got injured and had to abandon his studies in military training

to return to Dar es Salaam.

In the meantime, Lee got a scholarship

to go to East Germany to study journalism,

a tool he would use for the movement.

[ Camera shutter clicks ]

-[ Laughs ]

[ Laughs ]

-[ Breathing heavily ]

-In 1965, Lee learned that another one

of the disciples, Peter Swartz,

had disappeared in London.

[ Whistle blows ]

[ Whistle blows ]

The US considered the ANC

a communist terrorist organization.

-In those early days,

there wasn't much known about the ANC,

let alone about Mandela,

who had been imprisoned for --

Let me say, in the '70s, it had already been

over 10 years of his imprisonment.

-It was also a very difficult time

because we came here, and nothing --

but nothing was in the newspapers

about South Africa.

-Lee started using Super 8 film to document his community.

We were primed for Lee to enter our lives.

-I was attracted to him because he could dance very well.

When I met Lee, I was very much involved

in Black nationalist movement.

I suppose that the fact that my father always wanted

to go to Africa influenced me,

and then, of course,

in the '60s,

we became African, really.

We thought of ourselves as African.

We looked at the African that's in us,

and that was the beauty in us

and the pride in us,

and, of course, we dressed African.

We wore our hair African.

We ate African.

So, we wanted to know as much as we can about Africa.

One of the arguments we had at first when we met,

he would tell me about the ANC had a non-racialistic policy,

and I would say, "Oh, no.

You're going to trust those whites there?

Forget it," and we discussed it,

and we talked about it, and eventually,

I came over to his point of view

that you really shouldn't judge by skin color,

but that you would have to look at the person's politics

and their good will.

-I was captivated by my mother's new boyfriend,

this handsome revolutionary

who taught us about the horrors of apartheid in South Africa

and Nelson Mandela,

his imprisoned president of the ANC.

Every night when I went to bed,

I would will myself to become invisible,

grow wings and fly to South Africa

to fight the evil racists.

[ Indistinct conversations ]

-Lee moved in a few months later

and was ready to fill a father's shoes.

I was desperate for a father's love...

...but also fearful of a father's betrayal.

My birth father had left two years earlier.

There were many times when he would call up

and say he was coming to visit.

My brother and I would get all dressed up

and wait for him to come...

only he never did.

[ Indistinct conversations ]

My mother had other boyfriends who I had grown close to,

only to be abandoned by them, as well.

-I wanted you and your brother, Lyle,

to, you know, like him

and to see him for, you know,

the fine person that I thought that he was,

and, of course, you and your brother, Lyle,

didn't like him because you were very close to me,

and then he was not your father.

[ Indistinct conversations ]

-I think Lee, obviously, respected us, you know?

He cared for us in a way that, you know --

in a way that he could.

I think he felt probably could have, you know,

perhaps used more disciplined,

and we had to accept the fact that we were rambunctious,

and we were outspoken kids, you know.

You know, as adults now

to look back on that, in certain ways,

we could have been more sensitive.

-You did a lot of little things

to make him uncomfortable,

and Lee would always say that these children are not like

the children in South Africa.

The children in South Africa listen.

[ Chuckling ] These children don't listen.

You and Lyle used to do things like put salt in his shoes

and things like that.

It was like a Cold War,

like Russia and the United States --

a standoff.

Nobody exploded a nuclear bomb.

But it was kind of a tense situation.

-The explosion happened.

Lee got drunk, broke a vase and blamed it on me,

but I told him it was his drunkenness

that broke that vase.

Lee slapped me across my face,

and I broke a broomstick over his head.

I vowed not to let him terrorize me.

Less than two years after Lee joined our family,

my mother took my brother and I to live in Tanzania,

leaving Lee behind in America

to pursue his studies.

-When I heard Educators for Africa

were looking for people to go to Africa,

and specifically Tanzania, because Tanzania was really

the seat of the Pan-Africanist movement,

I became very interested in going to Africa.

The other reason I said I would go

was because of you and Lyle.

Not that you didn't like Lee,

but no one is going to like a stepfather.

I thought that if I took you to Tanzania,

that would sort of give us a break,

and then by the time that you get back,

you would appreciate him more.

-Lee's extended family,

a community of exiles, embraced us in Dar es Salaam,

providing a cohesion of family

thousands of miles away from home.

I began to think about Lee

separated from his homeland for so many years

and now left alone in the Bronx.

-[ Singing in African dialect ]

-[ Chuckles ]

-Lee used his Super 8 camera

to film any photographs he could get his hands on

of South Africa...

...holding on to fragments of memory...

...a mission in limbo.

[ Typewriter clacking ]

Looking at this footage now,

I sense how deeply Lee must have missed us

and how we had already become so much a part of his life.

-We had thought that after 5, 10 years, we would go home,

and here, we were getting into our 30s, our 40s.

Many South Africans

could not take that.

[ Train rumbling ]

[ Whistle blows ]

-In 1976,

after two years of living in Dar es Salaam,

we returned to the Bronx

and to Lee.

-Lee and I got married in 1976.

The family sent me a beautiful yellow skirt

to wear at the wedding,

and they were really happy that Lee was getting married.

[ Laughs ]

I think that Lee thought of you as his children,

and anytime he would refer to you guys,

he would refer to you as his sons.

He would never say his stepson.

I think the mere fact that he was never married before,

he married a woman, which was me,

who had two children,

was not the typical African thing to do,

so, I mean,

he must have accepted you

in order to marry me.

[ Helicopter blades whirring, indistinct screaming ]

-June 16, 1976,

Soweto's school students staged a mass protest

against the use of Afrikaans

as an official language.

Police opened fire on the students,

sparking unrest that left thousands dead.

-After '76, many students left South Africa.

Lee really was sympathetic with them,

so we've had many of them stay here.

-This house, 4133 Paulding Avenue,

was like the base

of the ANC unit

in New York City.

-That is the same with them.

-At one point, they thought that the office

was bugged by the FBI,

and so there were meetings here.

-We needed secure environments,

and Lee's home was opened to us

as the ANC membership

to have our meetings.

[ Indistinct conversations ]

-The constant stream of strangers

made it difficult to have a space of my own.

-[ Singing in African dialect ]

-To make matters worse, every Saturday morning,

I would wake up to the sound of South African music

blaring through our house

and into the whole neighborhood.

[ Singing continues ]

-When I mentioned that Lee

slaughtered sheep in our backyard

to celebrate special occasions,

my American friends were absolutely horrified.

[ Laughter ]

-Rudean always, always had an open house,

and so in a sense,

Lee ceased to be Lee by himself,

but it was Lee and Rudean.

There was something very solid,

very stable

and very reinforcing

in that home.

-Perhaps I couldn't open up to Lee

because he had captured my mother's imagination.

-My personal life, my political life,

my social life was all involved in terms of the struggle.

-If I look at my own kids,

I just weep inside

to think how much more attention

I could have given them,

how much more love I could have given them,

but there was no question of doing that, you know.

There just was no question of doing that,

and I had to pursue

because the most important thing that I wanted to give them

was hope.

I wanted to give them South Africa.

-For Lee,

politics was always first,

and he was beginning to realize his dream of becoming

a political journalist in America.

-We met a woman from Botswana.

Lee and I met her at the UN

at a party that was given there,

and she says, "Oh, your voice sounds familiar,"

so he says, "Well, you know, I do the anti-apartheid radio,"

and she goes, "Oh!

You're the most famous person there besides Michael Jackson!"

-Beneath the happiness,

there was melancholy.

Sometimes when I looked into Lee's eyes,

all I could sense was a deep longing.

When he was drinking and his defenses were down,

we could connect sometimes.

I became dependent on those moments

and almost preferred Lee when he was drinking.

-Many exiles, not all of them,

but many exiles did use alcohol

as a way to ease the pain of not being able to go back.

[ Indistinct conversations ]

-Lee's extensive archive gave witness

to what was going on back home.

[ Indistinct radio broadcast ]

Within South Africa,

the brutality of the regime intensified --

crackdowns, mass arrests,

police abuse, and executions.

-To unite in struggle for people's...

-But the resistance of the South African people

also increased.

The efforts of Lee and the other disciples

culminated in worldwide condemnation

of the apartheid policies.

[ All shouting, cheering ]

Yet despite the protests, marches, and vigils,

for the exiles,

the dream of being able to return home waxed and waned

with the headlines and newspaper reports

coming from the front lines.

As Lee's dream of returning home got closer,

my distance increased.

I found myself seeking a place of my own in the world.

After graduating from Harvard College,

I headed to Europe

where I pursued an education of my own making.

Not knowing anyone, I could reinvent myself.

[ Camera clicks ]

[ Camera clicks ]

[ Camera clicks ]

[ Camera clicks ]

[ Camera clicks ]

[ Camera clicks ]

[ Camera clicks ]

I went to Amsterdam...

[ Camera clicks ]

...then traveled to Milan.

[ Camera clicks ]

[ Camera clicks ]

I became a minor curiosity

with my brown skin and curly hair,

alienated in a sea of whiteness.

I headed north to Paris,

which has always been a place of refuge

for black artists from the diaspora.

What I had not expected, however,

was a dull ache in the pit of my stomach,

an ache, a longing for home.

[ Indistinct singing ]

[ Singing continues ]

-After two years, I returned to America

and started working as a TV producer and journalist.

I think Lee was quietly proud,

but that didn't help our relationship.

Now Lee's health was increasingly a barrier

between us.

-My main objection to his drinking

was the fact that it was destroying his health,

and I didn't really want him to die, obviously.

I loved him, and I didn't want to be left alone.

You know, you're gonna get very sick from drinking this alcohol.

He used to say, "Well, you've got to die sometime."

-Lee's hope to see a free South Africa sustained him.

It's what kept him alive.

-I thought that South Africa would be free because,

as the Nigerians said, "No condition is permanent."

So, I thought that it would be free in my lifetime.

I didn't know when.

[ Cheers and applause ]

[ Indistinct singing ]

-I give you...

Nelson Mandela.

[ Cheers and applause ]

-Sisters and brothers...

we bring you the warm

and fraternal greetings

of the leadership...

and membership of our movement,

the African National Congress.

[ Cheers and applause ]

-Keep the pressure on!

Keep the pressure on!

Keep the pressure on!

Keep the pressure on!

[ Cheers and applause ]

-It was a dream come true.

Lee felt very good about returning home.

Lee and my mother decided to go and live in South Africa.

He looked up all of his old friends.

He was sort of like a semi-celebrity there.

Everybody wanted to know, you know,

what he had been doing, and everybody wanted to see him,

and I was excited about going

'cause Lee would always say that he would stop drinking

once he got to South Africa.

-Lee's first act upon arriving home

was to pay tribute to his ancestors.

-[ Singing in African dialect ]

-So you guys are the ANC Youth League,

and you're helping to organize these.

Come. Come closer.

Come in the shot.

-We're closer to you guys,

and then we're gonna have you guys continue walking,

and you're going to go to Winkey.

-These 12 from Bloemfontein

helped to ignite a movement that swept the world...

...raising funds, organizing security councils,

launching anti-apartheid missions,

and generating armed resistance

against an oppressive government.

Everywhere they went,

the houses, the events, the meetings

helped to create disciples of us all.

-[ Singing in African dialect ]

-♪ I don't want to go anywhere ♪

[ Singing in African dialect ]

♪ I don't want to go anywhere ♪

[ Singing in African dialect ]

♪ I am hanging with a disciple ♪

♪ Can you see them singing the song? ♪

♪ Can you see? ♪

♪ Can you see it? ♪

♪ Can you see them singing the song? ♪

♪ Can you see? ♪

♪ Can you see it? ♪

♪ Can you see them singing the song? ♪

[ Singing in African dialect ]

[ Speaking in African dialect ]

[ Singing in African dialect ]

[ Speaking in African dialect ]

[ Singing in African dialect ]

[ Indistinct call and response in African dialect ]

[ Insects chirping, buzzing ]

[ Chirping, buzzing continues ]

[ Chirping, buzzing continues ]

[ Chirping, buzzing continues ]

[ Thudding ]

[ Rattling ]

[ Horse trotting ]

[ Rattling continues ]

-The morning news,

Wilmington, Delaware,

July 8, 1982.

The woman and her children cross the Mason-Dixon Line,

a geographical boundary

between Maryland and Pennsylvania

that also served as the line

between freedom and slavery

before the Civil War.

Once safe in Pennsylvania,

the family went to Philadelphia

where they hid in a house

and were cared for by two black women,

Annette Elaine and Margaret Sterling.

News of successful flight of freedom

eventually reached plantations in the south

and encouraged other slaves,

mainly more women and children

but sometimes whole families,

to also run for freedom

and seek shelter at the same home in Philadelphia

where the two women had founded

the Grand United Order of Tents,

J.R. Giddings and Jolliffe Union.

-Good evening, sisters. -Good evening.

-We are here this afternoon for our memorial service

for our sisters who have gone on before us

whose shoulders we now stand on.

They saw the bend in the road.

[ Wolves pant ]

-The Progress-Index,

Petersburg, Virginia,

May 27, 1956.

The Goodwill Tent Number 653

of the United Order of Tents

will hold its first anniversary

at the Oliver Branch Baptist Church

this evening at 7:00.

All local subordinate tents

and...Nursing Unit Number 23

are invited.

Statement -- United Order of Tents

of the J.R. Giddings and Jolliffe Union,

Norfolk, Virginia.

Condition -- December 31, 1920.

Balance from previous year --


Income from members --


Miscellaneous --


Total --


The Evening Journal,

Wilmington, Delaware,


An entertainment titled "Amanda's Wedding"

will be given at 8:30 tomorrow evening

at Bethel AME Church,

6th and Walnut Streets,

by members of the Grand United Order of Tents.

Proceeds from the entertainment

will be used for the purchase of a tent home

at 1125 Walnut Street.

The entertainment is arranged by the M.A. Baird Tent,

of which Mrs. M.A. Baird is a worthy queen,

Mrs. Angeline Henry, leader,

and Mrs. C. Gertrude Rose, secretary.

[ Birds chirp ]

[ Chirping continues ]

[ Chirping continues ]

[ Chirping continues ]

-♪ Ooh ♪

♪ Ooh-ooh ♪

♪ Ooh, ooh, ooh ♪

♪ Ooh ♪

♪ Ooh-ooh ♪

-The Sun,

New York, New York,


-♪ Ooh ♪

♪ Ooh-ooh ♪

♪ Ooh, ooh ♪

-Women who can keep a secret,

the Grand United Order of Tents

of which the great public has as yet heard little

and the beauties of its regalia, ceremonies, and principles

will first become known

to thousands through this publication.

-♪ Ooh-ooh ♪

♪ Ooh, ooh ♪

-The Order of the Tents is so mysterious

that it is almost impossible to obtain any information

of the organization, its foundation,

its age, its extent,

its numbers or its strength.

-♪ Ooh ♪

♪ Ooh-ooh ♪

♪ Ooh, ooh ♪

-The origin of the order is obscure,

or else a reticence of the members

has become so fixed,

a habit on account

of the many efforts that have been made to invade it.

♪ Ooh-ooh ♪

♪ Ooh, ooh ♪

♪ Ooh ♪

♪ Ooh-ooh ♪

♪ Ooh, ooh ♪

[ Bird calls in distance ]

-Funding for "AfroPop: The Ultimate Cultural Exchange"

is provided in part by

the Corporation for Public Broadcasting.


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